Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Rectum: biopsy

Contributor(s): Debbie Archer

Introduction

  • Histopathological examination of tissues from the large intestine can help in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory, infiltrative or neoplastic conditions.
  • Rectal mucosal biopsies may be diagnostic in up to 30-50% of chronic enteropathy cases.
  • Negative findings do not rule out the possibility of pathology in the rest of the gastrointestinal tract and should be interpreted with caution.

Uses

Advantages

  • Easy and simple to collect.
  • Minimal complications if performed correctly.
  • Minimal equipment required.
  • Low cost.

Disadvantages

  • The pathological process has to be extensive enough to affect the rectum.
  • Up to 33-50% of rectal biopsies are positive in horses with clinical signs of intestinal disease.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Depends upon individual disease entity.
  • Conditions that may be detected using rectal biopsy include:
    • Acute/chronic granulomatous or eosinophilic proctitis.
    • Cyathostominosis.
    • Diffuse intestinal lymphosarcoma    .
  • The results of rectal biopsy should be taken in combination with the results of clinical and other diagnostic tests.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lindberg R, Nygren A & Persson S G B (1996) Rectal biopsy diagnosis in horses with clinical signs of intestinal disorders: a retrospective study of 116 cases. Equine Vet J 28 (4), 275-284 PubMed.
  • Ricketts S W (1996) Rectal biopsy - a piece of the diagnostic jigsaw puzzle. Equine Vet J 28 (4), 254-255 PubMed.


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