Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Male: genitalia - examination

Contributor(s): William Ley, Graham Munroe, Elaine Watson, Madeleine L H Campbell

Introduction

  • Examination of the external genitalia is carried out to ascertain the presence of trauma or disease be it viral, parasitic, neoplastic or rarely, developmental.
  • It constitutes part of a breeding soundness examination, eg if problems with fertility become apparent during the stud season, or prior to purchase.
  • Methods adopted use both natural and chemical stimulation.

Uses

  • Breeding soundness examination where a stallion is to be assessed for future stud ability or where current fertility is in question.
  • To assess stallion sexual behavior.
  • To assess testicular size as part of an estimation of daily sperm output (and therefore an estimation of how many mares a stallion can be used for per day by artificial insemination).
  • To detect disease and assess trauma:

Advantages

  • No specialized equipment is required other than an estrus mare.

Disadvantages

  • If chemical restraint is required the risks of priapism Penis: paralysis/priapism and associated paraphimosis Penis: paraphimosis should not be ignored.
  • Manual exteriorization of the penis is extremely difficult in many stallions.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Little T V & Holyoak G R (1992) Reproductive anatomy and physiology of the stallion. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 8 (1), 1-29 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Crabtree J (2010) Pre-breeding Examination of the Stallion. Part 1.  In Pract 32 (1), 22 InPract.
  • Pozor M (2005) Diagnostic Applications of Ultrasonography to Stallion's Reproductive Tract. Theriogenology 64 (3), 505-509 PubMed.
  • Freeman L E et al (1998) Anatomy ot the equine male reproductive system. In: Large Animal Urogenital Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Wolfe D F & Moll H D. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. pp 9-16.
  • Dascanio J J et al (1998) Examination of the scrotum, testes prepuce and penis. In: Large Animal Urogenital Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Wolfe D F & Moll H D. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore. pp 17-22.
  • Turner A S, Blanchard T L & Varner D D (1992) Stallion Management. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 8 (1), 6-9.
  • Colahan P T et al (1991) Equine Medicine and Surgery. 4th edn. Vol 2. American Veterinary Publications Inc. pp 848. ISBN: 0 939674 27 0 (concise summary of main points).


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