Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Head: radiography

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd, Jeffrey Watkins, Chris Whitton

Introduction

Radiography allows assessment of both osseous and soft tissue structures of the head   Radiography: overview  .

  • Radiography of the skull is not difficult, however interpretation can be a problem as the anatomical structures are very complex.

Correct positioning will help considerably.

Uses

Advantages

  • Portable x-ray machines   Radiography: portable x-ray unit  can be used for some views, particularly if fast rare-earth film screen combinations are used.
  • Dorsoventral views of the nasal septum can be obtained in a well-sedated standing horse   Anesthesia: standing chemical restraint  .

Disadvantages

Attention must be paid to radiation safety, use long handled or free standing cassette holders . Personnel holding the horse should wear lead gloves and aprons and use thyroid shields   Radiography: radiation safety  .

  • Radiographic views and exposure techniques vary with the area of head being examined.

Exposure factors for the sinuses are considerably less than those for the teeth.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Barakzai S (2014) Radiology of equine cheek teeth and sinus disorders. In Pract 36 (9), 466-472 BVA.
  • Barrett M F & Easley J T (2013) Acquisition and interpretation of radiographs of the equine skull. Equine Vet Educ 25 (12), 643-652 VetMedResource.
  • Barakzai S Z (2005) The equine paranasal sinuses Part 2: Radiography of the equine paranasal sinuses. UK Vet 10 (1), 5-9.
  • Barakzai S Z & Weaver M P (2005) Imaging the equine temporohyoid region. Equine Vet Educ 17 (1), 14-15 VetMedResource.
  • Barakzai S Z (2004) Equine dental radiography - Part 3: Radiographic signs of dental disease. UK Vet (4), 14-17.
  • Gibbs C (1996) Radiography of the head and soft tissues of the neck. Equine Vet Educ VetMedResource.
  • Park R D (1993) Radiographic examination of the equine head. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract (1), 49-74 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Klugh D O (2003)Intraoral Radiography of Equine Premolars and Molars.In:Proc 49th AAEP Convention.pp 280-286.
  • Butler J, Colles C M, Dyson S J, Kold S E & Poulos P W (1993)Clinical Radiology of the Horse.Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-632-03271-5.


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