Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Eye: examination - indirect ophthalmoscopy

Contributor(s): Keith Barnett, Dennis E Brooks, Graham Munroe

Introduction

Uses

Advantages

  • Greater field of view - surveys at low power.
  • Good image when ocular media is cloudy.
  • Stereopsis and depth perception if binocular instrument is used.
  • Easy to use if monocular indirect model (American Optical Co.) is used.

Disadvantages

  • Less magnification than direct technique.
  • Binocular and commercial monocular instruments are expensive, and require practice in using them and can be cumbersome.
  • Inverted image (except American Optical Co. model).
  • Require mydriasis to be effective.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Cooley P L (1992) Normal equine ocular anatomy and eye examination. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract (3), 427-449 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Brooks D E (1999)Equine Ophthalmology.In:Veterinary Ophthalmology.Ed: Gelatt K N. 3rd edn. 1053-1116.


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