Equis ISSN 2398-2977

CSF: collection

Synonym(s): Cerebrospinal fluid sampling, Spinal tap, Lumbar puncture

Contributor(s): Frank Andrews, Caroline Hahn, Robert J MacKay, Vetstream Ltd

Introduction

  • To aid in diagnosis of neurologic disease.
  • Normal CSF analysis does not rule out the possibility of CNS disease.
  • CSF is an ultrafiltrate of plasma derived from the ventricular choroid plexuses and ependymal lining of ventricles, pia arachoid and meningeal blood vessels. It provides a physical support medium for the CNS.
  • CSF can be collected from the atlanto-occipital (cisternal) or the lumbosacral site.

Uses

  • Suspected brain lesions.
  • Suspected spinal cord lesions.
  • Suspected multifocal or diffuse lesions of the CNS.

Advantages

  • CSF abnormalities highly significant and of diagnostic and prognostic value.

Disadvantages

  • Results of analysis may be unrewarding.
  • Need for general anesthesia   Anesthesia: general - overview  in an already sick animal (cisternal puncture).
  • Lumbosacral puncture may be technically difficult to perform.
  • Full aseptic precautions required.
  • If dramatic drop in CSF pressure created during withdrawal of CSF, this may result in tentorial herniation and convulsions.
  • Atlanto-occipital collection contraindicated if signs of brain herniation, eg dilated pupils, are present.
  • Lumbosacral collection often contaminated with blood.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Dependent on results of CSF analysis and response to treatment.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Depecker M, Bizon-Mercier C & Courouce-Malblanc A (2014) Ultrasound-guided atlanto-occipital puncture for cerebrospinal fluid analysis on the standing horse. Vet Rec 174 (2), 45 PubMed
  • Rease A, Behan A & Bohart G (2012) Ultrasound-guided cervical centesis to obtain cerebrospinal fluid in the standing horse. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 53 (1), 92-95 PubMed
  • Aleman M, Borchers A, Kass P H & Puchalski S M (2007) Ultrasound-assisted collection of cerebrospinal fluid from the lumbosacral space in equids. J Am Vet Medic Ass 230 (3), 378-384 PubMed.
  • Schwarz B & Piercy R J (2006) Cerebrospinal fluid collection and its analysis in equine neurological disease. Equine Vet Educ 18 (5), 243-248 VetMedResource.
  • Johnson P J & Constantinescu G M (2000) Collection of cerebrospinal fluid in horses. Equine Vet Educ 12 (1), 7-12 VetMedResource.
  • Johnson P J & Constantinescu G M (2000) Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in horses. Equine Vet Educ 12 (1), 13-17 VetMedResource.


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