Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Anesthesia: intubation

Contributor(s): Keith Branson, Elena Wawra

Introduction

  • Reflexes are suppressed during anesthesia   →   risk of regurgitation and aspiration by an 'unprotected' airway.
  • Inhalational anesthesia is the preferred means of anesthesia   Anesthesia: general - overview  .
  • Endotracheal intubation ensures control of respiration if necessary.

Anesthetic gases are volatile and pose a risk to personnel.

Uses

  • Maintenance of general anesthesia   Anesthesia: general - overview  using inhalational agents.
  • Protect airway during general anesthesia and recovery for intravenous   Anesthesia: intravenous (IV)  and inhalational anesthesia.
  • Accurate delivery of anesthetic gases.
  • Prevent loss of volatile agents to atmosphere and risk to personnel.
  • Removal of excess respiratory secretions.
  • Control of ventilation and delivery of oxygen.
  • Reduce respiratory deadspace.
  • Emergency situation - IPPV   Anesthesia: ventilators - overview  .

Advantages

  • Simple and quick procedure.
  • Very low risk of placing tube incorrectly.

Disadvantages

  • Cannot visualize larynx during intubation.
  • No validated guidelines on size of tube to use.
  • Diameter too narrow   →   inadequate airway protection, underventilation of the horse, increase in resistance.
  • Diameter too wide   →   damage to tracheal mucosa, problems at placement.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Saulez M N, Dzikiti B & Voigt A (2009) Traumatic perforation of the trachea in two horses caused by orotracheal intubation. Vet Rec 164 (23), 719-722 PubMed.
  • Eicker S W (1990) Equipment for inhalational anesthesia. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 6 (3), 543-555 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hall L W, Clarke K W & Trim C M (2001) Eds. Veterinary Anaesthesia. 10th edn. W B Saunders.
  • Thurmon J C, Tranquilli W J & Benson G J (1996) Eds. Lumb & Jones' Veterinary Anesthesia. 3rd edn. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  • Riebold T W, Geiser D R & Goble D O (1995)Large Animal Anesthesia; Principles and techniques.2nd edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. pp 65-71 & 83-125.
  • Vaughan J T & Allen R Jr (1982)Physical and chemical restraint.In:Equine Medicine and Surgery.Eds: R A Mansmann, E S McAllister & P W Pratt. American Veterinary Publications, California.


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