Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Anesthesia: epidural

Synonym(s): Caudal epidural anesthesia

Contributor(s): Kate Baker, Dennis R Gieser, Mark Senior

Introduction

  • Drugs are administered by the epidural route to localize and intensify their effects.
  • This route induces regional anesthesia without loss of motor control of the hindlimbs.

Uses

Advantages

  • Can negate the need for general anesthesia   Anesthesia: general - overview  for small scale surgical procedures.
  • Labour and time saving technique.
  • Minimal equipment and drugs required.
  • Can be performed in the field.
  • Cheap.
  • Long-term catheterization may be feasible for repeated administration of morphine-detomidine in cases of chronic pain.

Disadvantages

  • Requires degree of competence/experience for correct placement of needle in epidural space.
  • Restraint of patient may be difficult.
  • The use of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists as sedative agents can induce regular and profuse urination which can interfere with the surgical site.
  • Occasionally severe ataxia and loss of motor control of hindlimbs can result.
  • Instances of excitement have been reported necessitating induction of general anesthesia   Anesthesia: general - overview  .

Requirements

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Preparation

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Procedure

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Aftercare

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prognosis

  • Experience of needle placement by clinician determines success of procedure.
  • Obese and heavily muscled breeds make landmarks difficult to find.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Michou J & Leece E (2012) Sedation and analgesia in the standing horse 2. Local anaesthesia and analgesia techniques. In Pract 34 (10), 578-587 VetMedResource.
  • Trim C (2007) The changing face of epidural analgesia. Equine Vet Educ 19 (11), 595-596 VetMedResource.
  • Ganidagli S, Cetin H, Biricik H S & Cimtay I (2004) Comparison of ropivacaine with combination of ropivacaine and fentanyl for the caudal epidural anesthesia of mares. Vet Rec 154 (11), 329-332 PubMed.
  • Sysel A Met al (1997) Systemic and local effects associated with long-term epidural catheterization and morphine-detomidine administration in horses. Vet Surg 26, 141-149 (Description of long-term catheterization technique and study results) PubMed.


ADDED