Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Abdomen: abdominocentesis

Contributor(s): Steve Adair, Debbie Archer, Vetstream Ltd, Graham Munroe

Introduction

  • To obtain peritoneal fluid for analysis.
  • To aid in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pathology.
  • Can assist the decision to perform surgery or treat medically in the colic Abdomen: pain - adult Abdomen: pain - neonate patient.
  • An indication on the potential prognosis of any colic treatment.

Uses

Indications

Advantages

  • Easily performed in standing horse or foal.
  • Relatively safe.
  • Provides essential information regarding the presence of strangulated bowel in the case of acute colic assisting the decision to treat medically or surgically.

Disadvantages

  • Bowel puncture (enterocentesis) - relatively common but rarely causes clinical problems.
  • Damage to serosal surface of intestine   →   adhesions.
  • Contamination of sample with blood or gut contents.
  • Greater risk of enterocentesis/serosal trauma in cases with distended abdomen, particularly if a distended viscus has been palpated on rectal examination.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Duesterdieck-Zellmer K F et al (2014) Effects of abdominocentesis technique on periotneal fluid and clinical variables in horses. Equine Vet Educ 26 (5), 262-268 WileyOnline.
  • Beccati F et al (2014) Evaluation of transabdominal ultrasound as a tool for predicting the success of abdominocentesis in horses. Vet Rec 174 (10), 251 PubMed.
  • Dunkel B et al (2013) Blood lactate concentrations in ponies and miniature horses with gastrointestinal disease. Equine Vet J 45 (6), 666–670 PubMed.
  • Peloso J G & Cohen N D (2012) Use of serial measurements of peritoneal fluid lactate concentration to identify strangulating intestinal lesions in referred horses with signs of colic. JAVMA 240 (10), 1208–1217 PubMed.
  • Hassel D M, Hill A E & Rorabeck R A (2009) Association between hyperglycemia and survival in 228 horses with acute gastrointestinal disease. J Vet Intern Med 23 (6), 1261–1265 PubMed.
  • Johnston K, Holcombe S J & Hauptman J G (2007) Plasma lactate as a predictor of colonic viability and survival after 360 degrees volvulus of the ascending colon in horses. Vet Surg 36 (6), 563–567 PubMed.
  • Latson K M et al (2005) Evaluation of peritoneal fluid lactate as a marker of intestinal ischaemia in equine colic. Equine Vet J 37 (4), 342–346 PubMed.
  • Matthews S et al (2002) Predictive values, sensitivity and specificity of abdominal fluid variables in determining the need for surgery in horses withan acute abdominal crisis. Aust Vet J 80 (3), 132–136 PubMed.
  • Van Hoogmoed L et al (1999) Evaluation of peritoneal fluid pH, glucose concentration, and lactate dehydrogenase activity for detection of septicperitonitis in horses. JAVMA 214 (7), 1032–1036 PubMed.
  • Siex M T & Wilson J H (1992) Morbidity associated with abdominocentesis - A prospective study. Equine Vet J Suppl 13, 23–25 VetMedResource.
  • Schumacher J, Spano J S & Moll H D (1985) Effects of enterocentesis on peritoneal fluid constituents in the horse. JAVMA 186 (12), 1301-1303 PubMed.
  • Tulleners E P (1983) Complications of abdominocentesis in the horse. JAVMA 182 (3), 232-234 PubMed.


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