Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Respiratory: lower airway cytology

Contributor(s): Annalisa Barrelet, Kathleen P Freeman, Robert Shull

Overview

  • Identification of cell types in respiratory secretions is used in the diagnosis and characterization of respiratory disease.
  • Cytology of fluids from the lower respiratory tract provides information about the condition of tissues next to the air spaces.
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Sampling

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Tests

Methodologies

  • Centrifugation/cytocentrifugation onto slide.
  • Air-dry smears as quickly as possible, using a fan if necessary.
  • Stain with Diff-Quik, Wright-Giemsa, May-Gruenwald for routine cytology.
  • Use Prussian blue for hemosiderin, or Toluidine blue for mast cells.
  • Examine at high power (900-1000x) and >500 cells.

Technician (extrinsic) limitations

  • Fluid collected by transendoscopic or transtracheal aspirate will reflect a different cell population than that collected by bronchoalveolar lavage.
  • The volume of fluid instilled and collected will influence the proportion of cells observed; smaller volumes result in higher mast cell and neutrophil counts.

Result Data

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMedpublished during the last 12 months.
  • Raidal S L, Love D N, Bailey G D & Rose R J (2000)The effect of high intensity exercise on the functional capacity of equine pulmonar alveolar macrophages and BAL-derived lymphocytes. Res Vet Sci68(3), 249-253PubMed.
  • Christley R M, Hodgson D R, Rose R J, Reid S W J & Hodgson J L (1999)Comparsion of bacteriology and cytology of tracheal fluid samples collected by percutaneous transtracheal aspiration or via an endoscope using a plugged, guarded catheter. Equine Vet Educ31(3), 197-202PubMed.
  • Hoffman A M (1999)Bronchoalveolar lavage technique and cytological diagnosis of small airway inflammatory disease. Equine Vet Educ11, 330-336.


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