Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Blood: biochemistry - glucose

Contributor(s): Annalisa Barrelet, Frank Taylor

Overview

  • Physiologic plasma levels of glucose are maintained by glucagon (raises glucose) and insulin (lowers glucose) to ensure that a continuous supply of glucose is available as an energy source for cell metabolism.
  • Absorbed via the small intestine, glucose is stored as glycogen in liver and muscle and liberated when plasma levels fall.
  • Other hormones can raise plasma glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis or glycogenolysis or increasing/decreasing utilization.
  • Any condition which affects these hormones will influence plasma glucose levels.
  • Hypoinsulinism (diabetes mellitus   Pancreas: chronic pancreatitis - diabetes mellitus  )   →   hyperglycemia.
  • Peripheral insulin resistance   →   hyperglycemia.
  • Epinephrine   Epinephrine  , cortisol   Endocrine: cortisol assay  , growth hormone, progesterone   Progesterone    →   increase glucose   Glucose  levels.

Sampling

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Tests

Methodologies

Screening
  • Dextrostix used with whole blood only, gives a semi-quantitative indicator of gross changes in plasma glucose.

Specific assays

  • Glucose oxidase reaction - results said to approach true glucose value under reliable laboratory conditions.
  • Ortho-toluidine - also measures galactose and mannose, but these are considered insignificant; simple, fast test.

Non-specific assays

  • Nelson-Somogyi and Folin-Wu - may give slightly higher than true levels, the former more specific than the latter.
  • Ferricyanide - approaches true glucose level.

Technique (intrinsic) limitations

  • Some laboratory methods affected by presence of enzyme inhibitors/activators.

Result Data

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMedpublished during the last 12 months.


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