Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Vitamin E

Synonym(s): Tocopherol, Alpha-tocopherol

Introduction

Name

  • Vitamin E.
  • Vitamin E is the general term used to describe 8 naturally occurring closely related compounds; four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
  • An essential fat-soluble vitamin required for healthy neuromuscular function.

Class of drug

  • Vitamin.

Description

Chemical name

  • (+)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(4812-trimethyltridecyl)-6-chromanol

Molecular formula

  • C29H50O2.

Molecular weight

  • 430.71 g/mol.

Physical properties

  • Water insoluble pale viscous oil.
  • Boiling point 210°C/410°F
  • Melting point 2-3°C/35.6-37.4°F

Storage requirements

  • Alphatocopherol is destroyed by light and oxygen, but is realtively heat stable.
  • Viability is lost during significant heating and freezing.
  • Encapsulation protects against vitamin E destruction.

Uses

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Indications

Administration

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • In humans:
    • Warfarin.
    • In one study, vitamin E plus other antioxidants (eg vitamin C, selenium, beta-carotene) reduced the heart-protective effects of two drugs taken in combination (a statin and niacin) to affect blood-cholesterol levels.
    • Could alter the effectiveness of chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer.

with diagnostic tests

  • [Text]

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Brown J C, Valberg S J, Hogg M et al (2017) Effects of feeding two RRR-alpha-tocopherol formulations on serum, cerebrospinal fluid and muscle alpha-tocopherol concentrations in horses with subclinical vitamin E deficiency. Equine Vet J 49, 753-758 PubMed.
  • Divers T J, Cummings J E, de Lahunta A et al (2006) Evaluation of the risk of motor neuron disease in horses fed a diet low in vitamin E and high in copper and iron. Am J Vet Res 67, 120-126 PubMed.
  • Schneider C (2005) Chemistry and biology of vitamin E. Mol Nutr Food Res 49, 7-30 PubMed.
  • Divers T, De Lahunta A, Hintz H F et al (2001) Equine motor neuron disease. Equine Vet Educ 13, 63-67.

Other sources of information

  • Finno C J & Valberg S J (2018) How to Effectively Supplement Horses with Vitamin E. In: Proc 64th AAEP Annual Convention. pp 469-472.
  • US Department of Heatlh & Human Services (2016) Vitamin E. Fact Sheet for Consumers. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements. Website: https://ods.od.nih.gov.
  • Drury E, Whitaker T & Palmer L (2009) Oral Water-Soluble Vitamin E Supplementation of the Mare in Late Gestation, its Effects on Serum Vitamin E Levels in the Pre and Postpartum Mare and the Neonate: A Preliminary Investigation. In: Advances in Equine Nutrition. Vol 6. pp 133-136
  • National Research Council (2007) Nutrient Requirements of Horses. 6th edn. The National Academies Press. Washington, USA.
  •  Harper F (2002) Vitamin E for Horses. In: University of Tennesseee Horse Information Series, AS-H. pp 126.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

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