Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Chloramphenicol

Contributor(s): Sally Anne Argyle

Introduction

Name

  • Chloramphenicol.

Class of drug

  • Chloramphenicol.
  • Other agents in the group include florfenicol a fluorinated derivative of chloramphenicol   Therapeutics: chloramphenicol  .

Description

Chemical name

  • [R-(R*,R*)]-2,2-dichloro-N-[2-Hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]acetamide.

Molecular formula

  • C11H12Cl2N2O5.

Physical properties

  • Powder for reconstitution.
  • Capsules.
  • Ocular preparation in the form of drops or ointment.

Storage requirements

  • Refrigeration of solution preferable between 2-8°C.
  • Protect from light.
  • Once the container is opened the drug can be used for up to one month. After this a new container must be opened and used.

Uses

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Indications

  • Intra-ocular bacterial infections.

Where possible the organism responsible for the infection should be identified and the correct drug chosen for treatment.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Avoid using in conjunction with bactericidal antibiotics as chloramphenicol may reduce their bactericidal effect.
  • Avoid using in conjunction with macrolide or lincosamide antimicrobials as they bind to a common site on the bacterial ribosome and can inhibit each other.
  • Chloramphenicol is a potent inhibitor of some cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver. This can decrease the clearance of certain drugs such as the barbiturates, phenytoin and cyclophosphamide.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Bertone J & Horspool L (2004) Eds. Equine Clinical Pharmacology. Saunders. ISBN: 0702024848.
  • Derived fromThe Veterinary Formulary (2004) 6th edn. Ed: Bishop Y. British Veterinary Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society. ISBN: 0853695792.

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