Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Therapeutics: aminoglycosides

Contributor(s): Vetstream Ltd

Introduction

  • Bactericidal.
  • Active against Gram-negative organisms, some Gram-positive organisms except streptococci   Streptococcus spp  .
  •  Pseudomonas aeruginosa  Pseudomonas aeruginosa  susceptible to amikacin   Amikacin  , gentamicin   Gentamicin  and tobramycin.
  • Bacteria take up aminoglycosides by oxygen-dependent process   →   inactive against anaerobes.
  • More active in alkaline environment cf urinary tract infections   Bladder: cystitis - bacterial  .
  • Synergistic with beta-lactam antibacterials.
  • Some enteric bacteria produce inactivating enzymes.
    Resistance can be acquired rapidly especially if doses are subtherapeutic
  • Not well-absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract   →   use oral administration only for gastro-intestinal infections.
  • Poorly distributed to body compartments, eg brain, cerebrospinal fluid and the eye.
  • Eliminated by renal excretion.
    Renal impairment   →   accumulation in the body   →   possible toxicity

Side-effects

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Preparations

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • O'Neill H (2012)An overview of aminoglycoside usage in the horse. UK Vet17, 4-7.

Other sources of information

  • Derived fromThe Veterinary Formulary4th edn (1998) Bishop, Y (Ed.). British Veterinary Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society.


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