Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Skin: immune-mediated disease - overview

Contributor(s): Rosanna Marsella, Sue Paterson

Mechanism of disease

  • Immune-mediated skin diseases can be subdivided into primary or autoimmune, eg attack against self, or secondary, ie immunologic event that causes damage but it is not primarily directed against self.

Autoimmune disease

  • In autoimmune diseases either antibodies or activated lymphocytes develop. This could be due to cross-reactivity between a foreign antigen and a self-antigen or the exposure of self-antigens to the immune system that are normally not exposed.
  • Additional possibilities for the development of an autoimmune disease include an inefficient suppressor T cell component and modification of antigens.
  • Examples of autoimmune diseases include pemphigus complex   Pemphigus foliaceus  , lupus erythematosus   Systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome  .

Secondary immune-mediated disease

  • In secondary immune-mediated diseases the antigen targeted is not a self antigen and the immunological reaction aimed at the foreign antigen    →   tissue damage.
  • Examples of immune-mediate disease include drug eruptions (eg erythema multiforme   Erythema multiforme  , toxic epidermal necrolysis), vasculitis   Vasculitis  , alopecia areata   Hair: alopecia areata   and amyloidosis   Amyloidosis  .

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Monitoring

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Cost considerations

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Zabel S, Mueller R S, Fieseler K V et al (2005) Review of 15 cases of pemphigus foliaceus in horses and a survey of the literature. Vet Rec 157 (17), 505-509 PubMed.
  • Day M J & Penhale W J (1986) Immunodiagnosis of autoimmune skin disease in the dog, cat and horse. Aust Vet J 63 (3), 65-68 PubMed
  • George L W & White S L (1984) Autoimmune skin disease of large animals. Vet Clin North Am Large Anim Pract (1), 79-86 PubMed

Other sources of information

  • Scott D & Miller W H (2003) Equine Dermatology. W B Saunders, USA. pp 68.


ADDED