ISSN 2398-2977      

Oleander (Nerium oleander)

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Synonym(s): Adelfa, Rose laurel, Rosenlorbeer


Introduction

  • Oleander   Oleander (Nerium oleander)   is a perennial, evergreen shrub or small tree, native to southern Europe, and now widely distributed in most tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world.
  • Thrives in hot climates - used in landscaping and as potting plants.
  • Leaves are simple, lanceolate, 7.5-25.5 cm long, dark green above, leathery, with a prominent midrib and veins.
  • White, pink or red showy flowers from 2.5-7.5 cm in diameter that grow in clusters.
  • All parts of the plant are toxic, including the dried leaves.
  • Humans, livestock, dogs, cats, birds and horses are susceptible to poisoning from oleander.
  • Oleander should not be planted in or around animal pastures or enclosures. 
  • Most horses will avoid the plant unless other forage is scarce.
  • Yellow oleander, Be-still tree, Tiger apple, Lucky nut ( Thevetia thevetioides) and Thevetia peruviana, common to tropical areas, are equally toxic.

Toxicity

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Clinical signs

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prognosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Siemens L M, Galey F D, Johnson B & Thomas W P (1995) The clinical, cardiac, and pathophysiological effects of oleander toxicity in horses. J Vet Intern Med 9, 217-221.

Other sources of information

  • Knight A & Hall J (2004) The 10 Most Dangerous Plants for Horses. Equus 320, 71-81.
  • Knight A P & Walter R G (2001) A guide to plant poisoning of animals in North America. Teton New Media, USA.
  • Burrows G E & Tyrl R J (2001) Toxic Plants of North America. Iowa State University Press, USA.
  • Allison K (1999) A Guide to Plants Poisonous to Horses. J A Allen & Co Ltd. ISBN: 0851316980.
  • Cooper M R & Johnson A W (1998) Poisonous Plants and Fungi - An Illustrated Guide. The Stationery Office. ISBN: 0112429815.
  • Allison K & Day C (1997) A Guide to Plants Poisonous to Horses. British Association of Holistic Nutrition and Medicine.

Organization(s)

  • Cornell University - Poisonous Plants Informational Database. Website: www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants.
  • Guide to Poisonous Plants. Website: www.southcampus.colostate.edu/poisonous_plants.
  • ToxicologyOnline.com. Website: www.toxonline.com.
  • Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS), London Center, Medical Toxicology Unit, Avonley Road, London SE14 5ER, UK. Tel: +44 (0)20 7635 9195; Fax: +44 (0)20 7771 5309.
  • Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS), Leeds Center, The General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK. Tel: +44 (0)113 245 0530; Fax: +44 (0)113 244 5849.

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