Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Nutrition: probiotics

Contributor(s): David Frape, Aileen Green, Ian Mole, M F Ponting, Carla Sommardahl, Katie Williams (nee Lugsden)

Introduction

  • Probiotics have been defined as 'a live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance'.
  • Within the EU only registered live culture strains may be fed to animals.

Equine digestive system

  • Indigenous gut microflora:
    • Composition incorporates a population of 400 bacterial species.
    • Symbiotic relationship undergoes a constant selection and fluctuation.
  • Role:
    • Digestive (fermentation of fiber and starch).
    • Protective (prevention of establishment of potential pathogenic micro-organisms).
  • Factors inducing changes of stable gut microflora are influenced by dietary and environmental conditions the most significant of which include:
    • Stress: transport, birth, parturition, castration or other surgery, performance/competition, illness or injury, fear. Within the gut the trend during stress is for Lactobacillito decrease and coliforms to increase, resulting in an alteration of the gut microflora which may   →   diarrhea.
    • Antibiotic therapy: suppression of microflora (beneficial and non-beneficial).
    • Changes in diet: type or quality.

Microbes commonly utilized in probiotics

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Characteristics of a quality probiotic

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Probiotic use

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Probiotic modes of action

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Administration

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Chen X, Kokkotou E G, Mustafa N, Bhaskar K R, Sougioultzis S, O'Brien M, Pothoulakis C & Kelly C P (2006) Saccharomyces boulardiiinhibits ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation both in vitro and in vivo and protects against Clostridium difficiletoxin A-induced enteritis. J Biol Chem281(34), 24449-24454PubMed.
  • Gobert J, Bertin G & Julliand V (2006)Digestive fate of Saccharomyces cerevisise CBS 493 494, fed at 3 different concentrations to horses. Reprod Nutr Dev46(Suppl 1), S95.
  • Desrochers A M, Dolente B A, Roy M F, Boston R & Carlisle S (2005)Efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardiifor treatment of horses with acute enterocolitis. JAVMA227(6), 954-959PubMed.
  • Qamar A, Aboudola S, Warny M, Michetti P, Pothoulakis C, LaMont J T & Kelly C P (2001) Saccharomyces boulardiistimulated intestinal immunoglobulin A immune response to Clostridium difficiletoxin A in mice. Infect Immun69 (4), 2762-2765PubMed.
  • Castagliuolo I, Riegler M F, Valenick L, LaMont J T & Pothoulakis C (1999) Saccharomyces boulardiiprotease inhibits the effects of Clostridium difficiletoxin A and B in human colonic mucosa. Infect Immun67(1), 302-307PubMed.
  • Grela E R & Semeniuk W (1999)Probiotics in animal production. Medycyna Weterynaryjna55, 222-228.
  • Line J E, Bailey J S, Cox N A, Stern N J & Tompkins T (1998)Effect of yeast-supplemented feed on Salmonella and Campylobacter populations in broilers. Poult Sci77(3), 405-410PubMed
  • Flachowsky G & Schulz E (1997)Feed supplements and their significance for performance and ecology. Arch Anim Breeding40, 101-107.
  • Matteuzzi D & Ferrari A (1996)Gastrointestinal microbiology in human and animal. Annali di Microbiologica ed Enzimologia46, 211-214.
  • Sedas V T P, Kubiak K N W & Lopez G R (1996)Probiotics and their future. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion46, 6-10.
  • Art T, Votion D, Mcentee K, Amory H, Linden A, Close R & Lekeux P (1994)Cardio-respiratory, hematological and biochemical parameter adjustments to exercise - effect of a probiotic in horses during training. Vet Res25(4), 361-370PubMed.
  • Moore B E & Newman K E (1994)Influence of feeding yeast culture (Yea-Sacc1026) on cecum and colon pH of the equine. J Anim Sci72(Suppl 1), 261.
  • Glade M J (1991)Effects of dietary yeast culture supplementation of lactating mares on the digestibility and retention of the nutrients delivered to nursing foals via milk. J Equine Vet Sci11, 323-329.

Other sources of information

  • European Food Safety Authority (2006)Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed on the Safety and Efficacy of the Product "Biosaf, Sc 47", a Preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a Feed Additive for Horses. EFSA J384, 1-9 Website: www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/384.pdf.
  • Frape D (2004)Equine Nutrition and Feeding.3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, England. ISBN: 1405105984.
  • Tannock G W (1999)Probiotics - A Critical Review.Horizon Scientific Press.
  • Fuller R (1997)Probiotics 2 - Application and Practical Aspects.1st edn. Eds: Chapman & Hall.
  • Ewing W N & Cole D J A (1994)The Living Gut - An Introduction to Microorganisms in Nutrition.Context.
  • Fuller R (1992)Probiotics - The Scientific Basis.1st edn. Eds: Chapman & Hall.


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