Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Nutrition: probiotics

Contributor(s): David Frape, Aileen Green, Ian Mole, M F Ponting, Carla Sommardahl, Katie Williams (nee Lugsden)

Introduction

  • Probiotics have been defined as 'a live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance'.
  • Within the EU only registered live culture strains may be fed to animals.

Equine digestive system

  • Indigenous gut microflora:
    • Composition incorporates a population of 400 bacterial species.
    • Symbiotic relationship undergoes a constant selection and fluctuation.
  • Role:
    • Digestive (fermentation of fiber and starch).
    • Protective (prevention of establishment of potential pathogenic micro-organisms).
  • Factors inducing changes of stable gut microflora are influenced by dietary and environmental conditions the most significant of which include:
    • Stress: transport, birth, parturition, castration or other surgery, performance/competition, illness or injury, fear. Within the gut the trend during stress is for Lactobacillito decrease and coliforms to increase, resulting in an alteration of the gut microflora which may   →   diarrhea.
    • Antibiotic therapy: suppression of microflora (beneficial and non-beneficial).
    • Changes in diet: type or quality.

Microbes commonly utilized in probiotics

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Characteristics of a quality probiotic

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Probiotic use

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Probiotic modes of action

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Administration

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Chen X, Kokkotou E G, Mustafa N et al (2006) Saccharomyces boulardii inhibits ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation both in vitro and in vivo and protects against Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis. J Biol Chem 281 (34), 24449-24454 PubMed.
  • Gobert J, Bertin G & Julliand V (2006) Digestive fate of Saccharomyces cerevisise CBS 493 494, fed at 3 different concentrations to horses. Reprod Nutr Dev 4(Suppl 1), S95.
  • Desrochers A M, Dolente B A, Roy M F, Boston R & Carlisle S (2005) Efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii for treatment of horses with acute enterocolitis. JAVMA 227 (6), 954-959 PubMed.
  • Qamar A, Aboudola S, Warny M et al (2001) Saccharomyces boulardii stimulated intestinal immunoglobulin A immune response to Clostridium difficile toxin A in mice. Infect Immun 69 (4), 2762-2765 PubMed.
  • Castagliuolo I, Riegler M F, Valenick L, LaMont J T & Pothoulakis C (1999) Saccharomyces boulardii protease inhibits the effects of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in human colonic mucosa. Infect Immun 67 (1), 302-307 PubMed.
  • Grela E R & Semeniuk W (1999) Probiotics in animal production. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 55, 222-228.
  • Line J E, Bailey J S, Cox N A, Stern N J & Tompkins T (1998) Effect of yeast-supplemented feed on Salmonella and Campylobacter populations in broilers. Poult Sci 77 (3), 405-410 PubMed
  • Flachowsky G & Schulz E (1997) Feed supplements and their significance for performance and ecology. Arch Anim Breeding 40, 101-107.
  • Matteuzzi D & Ferrari A (1996) Gastrointestinal microbiology in human and animal. Annali di Microbiologica ed Enzimologia 46, 211-214.
  • Sedas V T P, Kubiak K N W & Lopez G R (1996) Probiotics and their future. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 46, 6-10.
  • Art T, Votion D, Mcentee K, Amory H, Linden A, Close R & Lekeux P (1994) Cardio-respiratory, hematological and biochemical parameter adjustments to exercise - effect of a probiotic in horses during training. Vet Res 25 (4), 361-370 PubMed.
  • Moore B E & Newman K E (1994) Influence of feeding yeast culture (Yea-Sacc1026) on cecum and colon pH of the equine. J Anim Sci 72 (Suppl 1), 261.
  • Glade M J (1991) Effects of dietary yeast culture supplementation of lactating mares on the digestibility and retention of the nutrients delivered to nursing foals via milk. J Equine Vet Sci 11, 323-329.

Other sources of information

  • European Food Safety Authority (2006) Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed on the Safety and Efficacy of the Product "Biosaf, Sc 47", a Preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a Feed Additive for Horses. EFSA J 384, 1-9 Website: www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/384.pdf.
  • Frape D (2004) Equine Nutrition and Feeding. 3rd edn. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, UK. ISBN: 1405105984.
  • Tannock G W (1999) Probiotics - A Critical Review. Horizon Scientific Press.
  • Fuller R (1997) Probiotics 2 - Application and Practical Aspects. 1st edn. Eds: Chapman & Hall.
  • Ewing W N & Cole D J A (1994) The Living Gut - An Introduction to Microorganisms in Nutrition. Context.
  • Fuller R (1992) Probiotics - The Scientific Basis. 1st edn. Eds: Chapman & Hall.


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