Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Intestine: neoplasia - overview

Synonym(s): Intestinal neoplasia

Introduction

  • Intestinal neoplasia is a relatively common occurrence in horses Intestinal neoplasia: tumor types.
  • Some tumor types are very rare, others are relatively common.
  • Primary intestinal tumors and secondary involvement either via direct (continuous spread, eg from gastric carcinoma) or metastatic spread can occur Gastrointestinal: neoplasia.
  • Little recent progress has been made in the management or prevention of any of these conditions. No significant tumor markers so far identified for any equine neoplastic disease. However, some overlap may exist with tumor-associated antigens already characterized for human neoplastic disease states.
  • Intestinal involvement can occur in advanced cases of gastric squamous cell carcinoma and dysgerminoma: effects usually related to non-strangulating obstructions or adhesions between affected and non-affected bowel.
  • Extremely rare tumors also include:
    • Myxosarcoma.
    • Leiomyosarcoma.
    • Neurofibromas/ganglioneuroma.
  • Treatment principles:
    • Most cases are in an advanced stage by the time they can be appreciated by owners and subsequently presented for examination.. Once secondary signs are present the chances of a resolution are low.
    • Treatment is restricted to focal lesions only in an early stage, where surgical resection may be possible and can be successful.

Clinical effects

Diagnostic tests

  • Clinical examination (non-specific).
  • Rectal examination Musculoskeletal: rectal palpation:
  • Ultrasonography (possibly specific); more often dense or hollow masses (or both) Ultrasonography: overview:
    • Abnormal fluid volume.
    • Distinct masses.
    • Diffuse bowel thickening.
    • Local bowel thickening.
    • Secondary organ involvement (liver/spleen).
    • Lymphosarcoma masses have an almost pathognomic appearance.
  • Abdominocentesis Abdomen: abdominocentesis:
    • Specific diagnostic features of cell type: may be diagnostic in up to 21% of cases of intra-abdominal neoplasia.
    • Non-specific changes indicating non-infectious peritoneal inflammation.
    • Septic peritonitis can develop once the bowel wall has been eroded and breached possibly focal and walled off (at least temporarily).
  • Laparoscopy Abdomen: laparoscopy.
  • Laparotomy (celiotomy) Abdomen: laparotomy.
  • Hematology (non-specific):

Pedunculated lipoma

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Lymphoma

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Hemangioma/hemangiosarcoma

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Adenocarcinoma

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Melanoma/mesothelioma

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hollis A R (2011) Paraneoplastic syndromes. Equine Vet Educ 23 (4), 184-185 PubMed.
  • Henson F M D & Dobson J M (2004) Use of radiation therapy in the treatment of equine neoplasia. Equine Vet Educ 16 (6), 315-318.
  • Fulton I C, Brown C M & Yamini B (1990) Adenocarcinoma of Intestinal origin in a horse: Diagnosis by abdominocentesis and laparoscopy.  Equine Vet J 22, 447-448 PubMed.
  • Mair T S, Taylor F G & Brown P J (1990) Leiomyosarcoma of the duodenum in two horses.  J Comp Pathol 102, 119-120 PubMed.
  • Orsini J A, Orsoini P G, Sepesy L et al (1988) Intestinal carcinoid in a mare: An etiologic consideration for chronic colic in horses. JAVMA. 87-89 PubMed.
  • Honnas C M, Snyder J R & Olander H J (1987) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma in a horse.  JAVMA 191, 845 PubMed.
  • Wallace S S, Mayo M J, Maddux J M et al (1987) Mesothelioma in a horse. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 9, 209-211.
  • Van den Hoven R & Franken P (1983) Clinical aspects of lymphosarcoma in the horse: A clinical report of 16 cases.  Equine Vet J 15, 49-52 PubMed.
  • Traub J L, Bayly W M & Reed S M et al (1983) Intra-abdominal neoplasia as a cause of chronic weight loss in the horse. Comp Cont Educ Pract Vet 5, 526-530.
  • Cochin C (1977) A general survey of tumours in the horse. Equine Vet J 9, 1621 PubMed.
  • Wiseman A, Petrie L & Murray M (1974) Diarrhoea in the horse as a result of alimentary lymphosarcoma. Vet Rec 95, 454-456.
  • Lerner A B & Cage G W (1973) Melanomas in horses. Yale Journal of Biological Medicine 46, 646.

Other sources of information

  • Hollis A R (2015) Paraneoplastic Syndromes. In: Current Therapy in Equine Medicine. 7th edn.
  • Knottenbelt D C, Patterson-Kane J C & Snalune K L (2015) Clinical Equine Oncology. Elsevier, London.


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