Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Infection control

Contributor(s): Sarah Binns, J Scott Weese

Introduction

  • Infection control, or biocontainment, measures are designed to reduce the introduction and spread of disease on a premises and from one premises to another. Biosecurity measures   Biosecurity  , in contrast, are designed to reduce the likelihood of introduction of a disease on to a premises or, in the case of an exotic disease, into a country or region.
  • As with biosecurity, infection control measures can be based at the premises (equine or veterinary establishment), regional, national or international levels. All facilities should have a formal infection control program, then intensity of which varies greatly. 
  • Many horses have mobile lifestyles that involve mixing with others of the same and different species, often under conditions of stress. Rapid spread of infectious agents is therefore possible.
  • The goal is to prevent transmission of the infection to other premises, other horses or individuals of other species, including humans.
  • Programs at all levels should be based on a risk analysis approach, as described for biosecurity   Biosecurity  .
  • Epidemiological studies designed to identify risk, or predisposing, factors for a particular disease can lead to the development of appropriate control measures.
  • All infection control is based on the implementation of effective surveillance and monitoring systems to detect the presence of infection and estimate its prevalence (see below).
  • Vaccination is covered elsewhere   Vaccination: adult  .

Surveillance, monitoring and outbreak detection

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General principles of infection control

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Infection control at premises level

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Infection control for veterinary practices

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Infection control at regional or national level

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Weese J S (2014) Infection control and biosecurity in equine disease control. Equine Vet J 46 (6), 654-660 PubMed
  • Polton G & Elwood C (2008) Keeping it clean: further lessons for infection control. In Pract 30, 167-169 BVA.
  • ONeil B D (2007) Advances in animal disease surveillance and biosecurity. N Z Vet J 55 (6), 254 PubMed
  • Stockton K A, Morley P S, Hyatt D R et al (2006) Evaluation of the effects of footwear hygiene protocols on nonspecific bacterial contamination of floor surfaces in an equine hospital. JAVMA 228 (7), 1068-1073 PubMed.
  • Traub-Dargatz J L, Weese J S, Rousseau J D et al (2006) Pilot study to evaluate three hygiene protocols on the reduction of bacterial load on the hands of veterinary staff performing routine equine physical examinations. Can Vet J 47 (7), 671-676 PMC.
  • Watkins R E, Eagleson S, Hall R G, Dailey L & Plant A J (2006) Approaches to the evaluation of outbreak detection methods. BMC Public Health 6, 263-273 PubMed.
  • Baverud V (2004) Clostridium difficile diarrhea: infection control in horses. Vet Clin Equine 20 (3), 615-630 PubMed.
  • Bender J B & Tsukayama D T (2004) Horses and the risk of zoonotic infections. Vet Clin Equine 20 (3), 507-520 PubMed.
  • Daly J M, Newton J R & Mumford J A (2004) Current perspectives on control of equine influenza. Vet Res 35 (4), 411-423 PubMed.
  • Dwyer R M (2004) Environmental disinfection to control equine infectious diseases. Vet Clin Equine 20, 643-653 PubMed.
  • Morley P S (2004) Surveillance for nosocomial infections in veterinary hospitals. Vet Clin Equine 20 (3), 561-576 PubMed.
  • Smith B P (2004) Evolution of equine infection control programs. Vet Clin Equine 20 (3), 521-530 PubMed.
  • Traub-Dargatz J L, Dargatz D A, Morley P S, Dunowska M (2004) An overview of infection control strategies for equine facilities, with an emphasis on veterinary hospitals. Vet Clin Equine 20 (3), 507-520 PubMed.
  • Weese J S (2004) Barrier precautions, isolation protocols, and personal hygiene in veterinary hospitals. Vet Clin Equine 20 (3), 543-559 PubMed.
  • Christley R M & French N P (2003) Small-world topology of UK racing: the potential for rapid spread of infectious agents. Equine Vet J 35 (6), 526-528 PubMed.
  • Morley P S (2002) Biosecurity of veterinary practices. Vet Clin Food Anim 18, 133-155 PubMed.
  • Hueston W D & Taylor J D (2002) Protecting US cattle: the role of national biosecurity programs. Vet Clin Food Anim 18, 177-196 PubMed.
  • Smith D R (2002) Epidemiologic tools for biosecurity and biocontainment. Vet Clin Food Anim 18, 157-175 PubMed.
  • Weese J S, Peregrine A S & Armstrong J (2002) Occupational health and safety in small animal veterinary practice: part I nonparasitic zoonotic diseases. Can Vet J 43, 631-636 PubMed.
  • Wilson D W & Beers P T (2001) Global trade requirements and compliance with World Trade Organization agreements: the role of tracing animals and animal products. Rev Sci Tech 20 (2), 379-384 PubMed.
  • Wells S J (2000) Biosecurity on dairy operations: hazards and risks. J Dairy Sci 83, 2380-2386 PubMed.
  • Desmettre P (1999) Diagnosis and prevention of equine infectious diseases: present status, potential, and challenges for the future. Adv Vet Med 41, 359-377 PubMed.
  • Carpenter T E, McBride M D & Hird D W (1998) Risk analysis of quarantine station performance: a case study of the importation of equine infectious anemia virus-infected horses into California. J Vet Diagn Invest 10(1), 11-16 PubMed.
  • Bosman P, Bruckner G K & Faul A (1995) African horse sickness surveillance systems and regionalisation/zoning: the case of South Africa. Rev Sci Tech 14 (3), 645-653 PubMed.
  • Dwyer R M (1995) Disinfecting equine facilities. Rev Sci Tech 14 (2), 403-418 PubMed.
  • Ford W B (1995) Disinfection procedures for personnel and vehicles entering and leaving contaminated premises. Rev Sci Tech 14 (2), 393-401 PubMed.

Other sources of information


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