ISSN 2398-2977      

Heart: failure - treatment

pequis
Contributor(s):

Synonym(s): Treatment of heart failure, Therapy for heart failure


Introduction

Conventional therapy of heart failure

  • The aim of therapeutic interventions is to maintain cardiac output and reduce congestion. When this can be maintained by the heart's own compensatory mechanisms, cardiac therapy is not indicated. 
  • Cardiac output is influenced by changes in:
  • Preload.
  • Afterload.
  • Contractility.
  • Heart rate and rhythm.
  • Thus therapy is used to manipulate these factors to optimize cardiac output and reduce congestion.

Drugs affecting preload

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Drugs affecting afterload

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Drugs affecting cardiac contractility

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New approaches

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Johansson A M, Gardner S Y, Levine J F et al (2004) Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of furosemide after oral administration to horses. J Vet Intern Med 18, 739-743 PubMed.
  • Gardner S Y, Atkins C E, Sams R A, Schwabenton A B & Papich M G (2004) Characterization of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, in horses. J Vet Intern Med 18, 231-237 PubMed.
  • Young L E (2002) Congestive heart failure and the use of ACE inhibitors in the horse. Equine Vet Educ 14, 304-306.
  • Parraga M E, Kittleson M D & Drake C M (1995) Quinidine administration increases steady state serum digoxin concentration in horses. Equine Vet J, 114-119 PubMed.
  • Baggot J D (1995) The pharmacological basis of cardiac drug selection for use in horses. Equine Vet J Suppl 97-100 PubMed.
  • Sweeney R W, Reef V B & Reimer J M (1993) Pharmacokinetics of digoxin administered to horses with congestive heart failure. Am J Vet Res 54, 1108-1111 PubMed.
  • Muir WW III & McGuirk S (1987) Cardiovascular drugs. Their pharmacology and use in horses. Vet Clin.North Am Equine Pract 3, 37-57 PubMed.
  • Muir W W & McGuirk S M (1985) Pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of drugs used to treat cardiac disease in horses. Vet Clin.North Am Equine Pract 1, 335-352 PubMed.
  • Brumbaugh G W, Thomas W P, Enos L R & Kaneko J J (1983) A pharmacokinetic study of digoxin in the horse. J Vet Pharmacol.Ther 6, 163-172 PubMed.
  • Brumbaugh G W, Thomas W P & Hodge T G (1982) Medical management of congestive heart failure in a horse. JAVMA 180, 878-883 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Marr C M (1997) Treatment of Arrhythmias and Cardiac Failure. In: Current Therapy in Equine Medicine. Ed: Robinson N E. W B Saunders, USA. pp 250-259.

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