Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Endotoxemia: treatment

Contributor(s): Gayle Hallowell, Diana M Hassel, Ruth Morgan, Jarred Williams

Introduction

Etiology

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Pharmacological management

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New/experimental therapies

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Summary

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dern K, van Eps A, Wittum T et al (2018) Effect of Continuous Digital Hypothermia on Lamellar Inflammatory Signaling When Applied at a Clinically-Relevant Timepoint in the Oligofructose Laminitis Model. J Vet Intern Med 32 (1), 450-458 PubMed.
  • Kullmann A, Holcombe S J, Hurcombe S D et al (2014) Prophylactic digital cryotherapy is associated with decreased incidence of laminitis in horses diagnosed with colitis. Equine Vet J 46 (5), 554-559 PubMed.
  • Senior J M et al (2011) Plasma endotoxin in horses presented to an equine referral hospital: Correlation to selected clinical parameters and outcomes. Equine Vet J 43 (5), 585-591 PubMed.
  • Nieto J E et al (2009) Effect of lipopolysaccharide infusion on gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in normal horses in vivo. Equine Vet J 41 (7), 717-719 PubMed.
  • Kelmer G et al (2008) Evaluation of dimethyl sulphoxide effects on initial response to endotoxin in the horse. Equine Vet J 40 (4), 358-363 PubMed.
  • Moore J N  et al (2007) Rapid infusion of a phospholipid emulsion attenuates the effects of endotoxaemia in horses. Equine Vet J 39 (3), 243-248 PubMed.
  • Pantaleon L G et al (2007) Effects of small and large volume resuscitation on coagulation and electrolytes during experimental endotoxemia in anesthetized horses. J Vet Intern Med 21 (6), 1374-1379 PubMed
  • Dabareiner R M, White N A, Snyder J R, Feldman B F & Donaldson L L (2005) Effects of Carolina rinse solution, dimethyl sulfoxide, and the 21-aminosteroid, U-74389G, on microvascular permeability and morphology of the equine jejunum after low-flow ischemia and reperfusion. Am J Vet Res 66 (3), 525-536 PubMed
  • Barton M H, Parviainen A et al (2004) Polymyxin B protects horses against induced endotoxemia in vivo. Equine Vet J 36 (5), 397-401 PubMed.
  • Barton M H, Williamson L et al (2003) Effects on plasma endotoxin and eicosanoid concentrations and serum cytokine activities in horses competing in a 48-, 83-, or 159-km endurance ride under similar terrain and weather conditions. Am J Vet Res 64 (6), 754-761 PubMed.
  • Weese J S, Cote N M & deGannes R V (2003) Evaluation of in vitro properties of di-tri-octahedral smectite on clostridial toxins and growth. Equine Vet J 35 (7), 638-641 PubMed.
  • Moore J N & Barton M H (2003) Treatment of endotoxemia. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 19 (3), 681-695 PubMed.
  • MacKay R J, Daniels C A et al (2000) Effect of eltenac in horses with induced endotoxemia. Equine Vet J Suppl 32, 26-31 PubMed.
  • Taniguchi T, Shibata K et al (2000) Effects of lidocaine administration on hemodynamics and cytokine responses to endotoxemia in rabbits. Crit Care Med 28 (3), 755-759 PubMed.
  • MacKay R J, Clark V K et al (1999) Effect of a conjugate of polymyxin B-dextran 70 in horses with experimentally induced endotoxemia. Am J Vet Res 60 (1), 68-75 PubMed.
  • Barton M H, Bruce E H et al (1998) Effect of tumor necrosis factor antibody given to horses during early experimentally induced endotoxemia. Am J Vet Res 59 (6), 792-797 PubMed.
  • Barton M H, Moore J N et al (1997) Effects of pentoxifylline infusion on response of horses to in vivo challenge exposure with endotoxin. Am J Vet Res 58 (11), 1300-1307 PubMed.
  • Baskett A, Barton M H et al (1997) Effect of pentoxifylline, flunixin meglumine, and their combination on a model of endotoxemia in horses. Am J Vet Res 58 (11), 1291-1299 PubMed.
  • Shuster R, Traub-Dargatz J et al (1997) Survey of diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine and the American College of Veterinary Surgeons regarding clinical aspects and treatment of endotoxemia in horses. JAVMA 210 (1), 87-92 PubMed.
  • Taniguchi T, Shibata K et al (1996) Lidocaine attenuates the hypotensive and inflammatory responses to endotoxemia in rabbits. Crit Care Med 24 (4), 642-646 PubMed.
  • Durando M M, MacKay R J et al (1994) Effects of polymyxin B and Salmonella typhimurium antiserum on horses given endotoxin intravenously. Am J Vet Res 55 (7), 921-927 PubMed.
  • Moore B R & Hinchcliff K W (1994) Heparin: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in horses. J Vet Intern Med 8 (1), 26-35 PubMed.
  • Semrad S D, Sams R A et al (1993) Effects of concurrent administration of phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumine on pharmacokinetic variables and in vitro generation of thromboxane B2 in mares. Am J Vet Res 54 (11), 1901-1905 PubMed.
  • Moore J N & Morris D D (1992) Endotoxemia and septicemia in horses: experimental and clinical correlates. JAVMA 200 (12), 1903-1914 PubMed.
  • Morris D D (1991) Endotoxemia in horses. A review of cellular and humoral mediators involved in its pathogenesis. J Vet Int Med 5 (3), 167-181 PubMed.
  • Semrad S D & Moore J N (1987) Effects of multiple low doses of flunixin meglumine on repeated endotoxin challenge in the horse. Prostaglandins Leukot Med 27 (2-3), 169-181 PubMed.
  • Semrad S D, Hardee G E et al (1987) Low dose flunixin meglumine: effects on eicosanoid production and clinical signs induced by experimental endotoxemia in horses. Equine Vet J 19 (3), 201-206 PubMed.
  • Morris D D, Whitlock R H et al (1986) Endotoxemia in horses: protection provided by antiserum to core lipopolysaccharide. Am J Vet Res 47 (3), 544-550 PubMed.
  • Frauenfelder H C, Fessler J F et al (1982) Effects of dexamethasone on endotoxin shock in the anesthetized pony: hematologic, blood gas, and coagulation changes. Am J Vet Res 43 (3), 405-411 PubMed.
  • Moore J N, White N A et al (1981) Endotoxemia following experimental intestinal strangulation obstruction in ponies. Can J Comp Med 45 (3), 330-332 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Corley K T T & Hallowell G D (2009) Treatment of Endotoxemia. In: Equine Acute Abdomen. 2nd edn. pp 338-344.


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