Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Dental examination

Contributor(s): Gordon Baker, Chris Pearce, Bayard A Rucker

Introduction

  • A complete dental examination and recording of all dental abnormalities is an essential component of all dental treatments.
  • Awareness of age-related diseases and probability of occurrence is useful background information.
  • Young horses: overbites with parrot mouth   Mandible / maxilla: brachygnathism / prognathism    Maxilla: brachygnathism 01  , maleruptions   Teeth: maleruption      Teeth: maleruption - radiograph  , impactions (particularly 108, 208, 308 and 408), associated mandibular and maxillary bone osteopathies, eg swellings, cysts and draining tracts, associated with tooth eruption, and loose and retained dental caps.
  • Maturing horses: development of abnormalities of wear   Teeth: abnormal wear      Teeth: uneven wear 01 - cribbiter      Teeth: uneven wear 02 - wallgrinder      Teeth: uneven wear 03 - pathology  , rostral and caudal hooks   Teeth: hook - first cheek tooth on upper jaw  , irregularities, waves, and ramp formation.  The buccal ulcerations   Mouth: buccal ulceration - traumatic  , gingivitis, and initiation of periodontal pathology that is seen are associated with irregular wear.
  • Older horses: dental hooks   Teeth: hook - first cheek tooth on upper jaw  and waves, potentiation of periodontal disease   Teeth: periodontal disease      Teeth: periodontal disease 02 - pathology  , loss of teeth, supereruption of teeth, quidding, poor feeding habits, and loss of condition   Horse: poor condition  .  Abnormal mastication may   →   esophageal obstruction   Esophagus: impaction  and other alimentary disorders, eg colic   Abdomen: pain - adult  .

Age-related oral and dental abnormalities

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Equipment

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Examination technique

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Ancillary aids

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Record keeping

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Tremaine H & Casey M (2012)A modern approach to equine dentistry. 1. Oral examination. In Pract34(1), 2-10.
  • Tutt C (2011)Equine dentistry: Routine examination and floating. Equipment required. UK Vet16(1), 4-10.
  • Du Toit N, Burden F A & Dixon P M (2009)Clinical dental examinations of 357 donkeys in the UK. Part 1: Prevalence of dental disorders. Equine Vet J41(4), 390-394PubMed.
  • Du Toit N, Burden F A & Dixon P M (2009)Clinical dental examinations of 357 donkeys in the UK. Part 2: Epidemiological studies on the potential relationships between different dental disorders, and between dental disease and systemic disorders. Equine Vet J41(4), 395-400PubMed.
  • Du Toit N, Bezensek B & Dixon P M (2008)Comparison of the microhardness of enamel, primary and regular secondary dentine of the incisors of donkeys and horses. Vet Rec162(9), 272-275PubMed.
  • Dixon P M & Dacre I (2005)A review of equine dental disordersVet J169(2), 165-187PubMed.
  • Baker G (1998)Dental physical examinationVet Clin North Am Equine Pract14(2), 247-257.

Other sources of information

  • Easley J (1999)Dental and Oral Examination.  In: Equine Dentistry.Eds: Baker G & Easley J. Philadelphia, W B Saunders. pp 105-124.
  • Easley J (1996)Equine Dental Development and Anatomy. In: AAEP Proceedings.42, pp 1-10.


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