Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Anesthesia: peri-operative complications - hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

Synonym(s): HPP, HYPP, HKPP, Impressive syndrome

Contributor(s): Prof Jonathon Naylor, Mark Senior

Introduction

  • Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis   Muscle: hyperkalemic periodic paralysis  (HPP) was first reported in 1985/1986.
  • It is the result of an autosomal dominant mutation in the gene for skeletal muscle sodium channels.
  • Most affected horses are heterozygotes. Homozygotes show more severe clinical signs, about half die before a year of age but others become adults and may appear to be clinically normal.
  • Affected horses seem to be descendants of a show Quarterhorse stallion named Impressive(which is why the complication is sometimes called 'Impressive syndrome').

Clinical signs

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Predisposing factors

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Etiology

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Treatment

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Test for HPP

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Naylor J M, Nickel D D, Trimino G, Card C, Lightfoot K & Adams G (1999)Hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis in homozygous and heterozygous horses: a co-dominant genetic condition. Equine Vet J31(2), 153-159PubMed.
  • Naylor J M (1997)Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract13(1), 129-144PubMed.
  • Carr E A, Spier S J, Kortz G D & Hoffman E P (1996)Laryngeal and pharyngeal dysfunction in horses homozygous for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. JAVMA209(4), 798-803PubMed.
  • Naylor J M (1994)Equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis: review and implications. Can Vet J35(5), 279-285PubMed.
  • Robertson S A, Green S L, Carter S W, Bolon B N, Brown M P & Shields R P (1992)Postanesthetic recumbency associated with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in a quarter horse. JAVMA201(8), 1209-1212PubMed.
  • Traub-Dargatz J L, Ingram J T, Stashak T S, Kiper M L, Tarr S, Child G & MacAllister C G (1992)Respiratory stridor associated with polymyopathy suspected to be hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in four quarter horse foals. JAVMA201(1), 85-89PubMed.

Organization(s)

  • American Quarterhorse Association, PO Box 200, Amarillo, Texas 79168, USA. Tel: +1 (806) 376 4811; Website:http://www.aqha.com.
  • Gene probe testing:
    • Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8744, USA.


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