Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Anesthesia: monitoring - respiratory management

Contributor(s): David Bardell, Dennis R Gieser, Craig Johnson, G Mark Johnston, Mark Senior

Introduction

  • Monitoring of respiration should be continuously carried out throughout every anesthetic procedure.
  • Observing the movement of the chest and abdomen will give a good guide to rate and depth of respiration, even under IV anesthesia.
  • Observation of the reservoir bag in inhalation anesthesia will give a good estimate of the end tidal volume and rate of respiration.
  • Methods of monitoring respiration which require specialized equipment include arterial blood gas analysis   Blood: gas analysis  , measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide and inspired oxygen, pulse oximetry (which measures saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen) and spirometry (measures tidal volume).
  • Most of the above equipment is expensive, but it can provide valuable information.

Blood gas analysis

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Respiratory gas analysis

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Pulse oximetry

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Respiratory complications

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers
  • Recent references fromPubMedpublished during the last 12 months.
  • Trim C M (1998)Monitoring during anesthesia - techniques and interpretation. Equine Vet Educ10(4), 207-218.
  • Riebold T W (1990)Monitoring equine anesthesia. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract6(3), 607-624PubMed.
  • Klein L (1990)Anesthetic complications in the horse.  Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract6(3), 676-681PubMed.
  • Young S (1989)Monitoring the anesthetized horse. Equine Vet Educ1(1), 45-49.
  • Moens Y (1989)Arterial-alveolar carbon dioxide tension difference and alveolar dead space in halothane anesthetized horsesEquine Vet J21, 282-284PubMed.
  • Cribb P H (1988)Capnographic monitoring during anesthesia with controlled ventilation in the horseVet Surg17, 48-52PubMed.
  • Meyer R E & Short C E (1985)Arterial to end-tidal CO2 tension and alveolar dead space in halothane or isoflurane anesthetized poniesAm J Vet Res46, 597-599PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Magee P T (2005)Physiological Monitoring: Gases. In: Wards Anaesthetic Equipment. Eds: Davey A J & Diba A. Elsevier Saunders. pp 355-359.
  • Taylor P M & Clarke K W (1999)Monitoring. In: Handbook of Equine Anaesthesia. W B Saunders. pp 88-89.
  • Hubbell J A E (1991)Monitoring. In: Equine Anesthesia Monitoring and Emergency Therapy. Eds: Muir W W & Hubbell J A E. Mosby Year Book. pp 159-160.
  • McDonell W N & Dyson D H (1990)Monitoring the anesthetized horse.In Current Practice of Equine surgery.Eds: White N A & Moore J N. Lippincott. pp 87-93. ISBN: 0-397-50937-5.


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