Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Vagina: trauma

Contributor(s): Jean Pierre Held, Graham Munroe, Elaine Watson, Madeleine L H Campbell

Introduction

  • Vagina is less commonly traumatized than the cervix Cervix: trauma or vulva at foaling but can be damaged at breeding.
  • Cause: include trauma to the vaginal wall by the foal's foot and obstetric damage; failure to perform episiotomy (reversal) of Caslick's Vulva: Caslick operation prior to foaling; natural breeding accidents.
  • Signs: range from unnoticed injuries with fresh blood on the dismounting stallion's penis to acute peritonitis. Rarely, bowel will prolapse through the damaged vagina. Rectovaginal fistulae Perineum: trauma and perineal tears can form if the hoof penetrates the rectum as well as the vagina.
  • Treatment: varies depending on position, degree and cause of the laceration but can include:
  • Surgical repair in the standing animal.
  • Sedated animal under epidural anesthesia Anesthesia: epidural after infusing antibiotics into the peritoneum through the deficit in the vaginal wall.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Dystocia Reproduction: dystocia - foal's foot perforation/ripping of vaginal wall anywhere from cervix caudally.
  • Obstetric intervention, eg assisted foaling Reproduction: foaling management, embryotomy.
  • Breeding injuries (natural) due to over-forceful penetration of vagina by stallion's penis: this most commonly damages the cranial vagina. Can be associated with a large penis compared to the size of mare.

Pathophysiology

  • Subsequent to foaling or copulation.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Arnold C E, Payne M, Thompson J A, Slovis N M & Bain F T (2008) Periparturient hemorrhage in mares: 73 cases (1998-2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc 232 (9), 1345-1351 PubMed.
  • Dolente B A (2004) Critical peripartum disease in the mare. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 20 (1), 151-165 PubMed.
  • Frazer G, Burba D, Paccamonti D, Blouin D, Leblanc M, Embertson R & Hance S (1997) The effects of parturition and peripartum complications on the peritoneal fluid composition of mares. Theriogenology 48 (6), 919-931 PubMed.
  • Blue M G (1985) Genital injuries from mating in the mare. Equine Vet J 17 (4), 297-299 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Allen W E (1988) Fertility and Obstetrics in the Horse. Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Zent W W (1987) Postpartum Complications. In: Current Therapy in Equine Medicine, Vol. 2, Ed: Robinson N E. pp 544.
  • Arthur G H, Noakes D E & Pearson H (1983) Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 4th edn. Balliere Tindall, UK.
  • Rossdale P D & Ricketts S W (1980) Equine Stud Farm Medicine. 2nd edn. Balliere Tindall, UK.


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