Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Uterus: torsion

Contributor(s): Terry Blanchard, Philippa O'Brien, Vetstream Ltd

Introduction

  • Uterine torsion is a cause of maternal dystocia   Reproduction: dystocia  and late-pregnancy colic.
  • Incidence: of torsion as a cause of serious dystocia in the horse is thought to be <5-10%.
  • The uterus twists about its long axis. Torsion may be as much as 540°.
  • Cause: may include fetal activity or rolling of the mare.
  • Signs: resemble those of colic and are usually seen in late pregnancy.
  • Diagnosis: history and clinical signs, rectal palpation, manual/vaginoscopic vaginal examination.
  • Treatment: manually rotate the uterusper vaginumin term mares with mild torsions; surgical intervention in more severe cases.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Causative factors may include fetal activity or rolling of the mare.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Late pregnant gravid uterus.

Pathophysiology

  • The equine uterus is suspended by the broad ligaments which are attached to the dorsolateral body wall making torsion of the gravid uterus uncommon.

Timecourse

  • Usually occurs in late gestation (7-11 months), or at parturition.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Crabtree J (2012) Peripartum problems in mares. 1. Prepartum problems. In Pract 34 (7), 400-410 BVA.
  • Crabtree J (2012) Peripartum problems in mares 2. Postpartum problems. In Pract 34 (8), 462-471 BVA.
  • Cribb N C & Chenier T (2012) Uterine tears in horses. Equine Vet Educ 24 (9), 444-446 WileyBlackwell.
  • McNally T P, Rodgerson D H & Lu K G (2012) Infertility in a mare with a chronic uterine tear, diagnosis and successful standing hand-assisted laparoscopic repair. Equine Vet Educ 24 (9), 439-443 VetMedResource.
  • Freeman D E (2010) Chronic uterine torsion - a rare and unusual disease. Equine Vet Educ 22 (10), 487-488 VetMedResource.
  • Lopez C & Carmona J U (2010) Uterine torsion diagnosed in a mare at 515 days' gestation. Equine Vet Educ 22 (10), 483-486 VetMedResource.
  • Chaney K P et al (2007) The effect of uterine torsion on mare and foal survival: a retrospective study, 1985-2005. Equine Vet J 39 (1), 33-36 PubMed.
  • Vandeplassche M (1980) Obstetrician's view of the physiology of equine parturition and dystocia. Equine Vet J 12 (2), 45-49 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Vasey J R & Russell T (2011) Uterine Torsion. In: Equine Reproduction. 2nd end. Eds: McKinnon A O, Squires E L, Vaala E M & Varner D D. pp 2435-2440.
  • Sutter W W, Hopper S, Embertson R W & Frazer G S (2003) Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Uterine Lacerations in Mares (33 cases). In: Proc 49th AAEP Convention. pp 357-359.
  • Allen W E (1988) Fertility and Obstetrics in the Horse. Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Vandeplassche M (1987) Prepartum Complications and Dystocia. In: Current Therapy in Equine Medicine. Vol 2. Ed: N E Robinson. pp 537-542.
  • Arthur G H, Noakes D E &Pearson H (1983) Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 4th edn. Balliere Tindall, UK.
  • Rossdale P D and Ricketts S W (1980) Equine Stud Farm Medicine. 2nd end. Balliere Tindall, UK.


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