Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Uterus: torsion

Contributor(s): Terry Blanchard, Philippa O'Brien, Vetstream Ltd

Introduction

  • Uterine torsion is a cause of maternal dystocia   Reproduction: dystocia  and late-pregnancy colic.
  • Incidence: of torsion as a cause of serious dystocia in the horse is thought to be <5-10%.
  • The uterus twists about its long axis. Torsion may be as much as 540°.
  • Cause: may include fetal activity or rolling of the mare.
  • Signs: resemble those of colic and are usually seen in late pregnancy.
  • Diagnosis: history and clinical signs, rectal palpation, manual/vaginoscopic vaginal examination.
  • Treatment: manually rotate the uterusper vaginumin term mares with mild torsions; surgical intervention in more severe cases.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Causative factors may include fetal activity or rolling of the mare.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Late pregnant gravid uterus.

Pathophysiology

  • The equine uterus is suspended by the broad ligaments which are attached to the dorsolateral body wall making torsion of the gravid uterus uncommon.

Timecourse

  • Usually occurs in late gestation (7-11 months), or at parturition.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Crabtree J (2012)Peripartum problems in mares. 1. Prepartum problems.In Pract34(7), 400-410BVA.
  • Crabtree J (2012)Peripartum problems in mares 2. Postpartum problems.In Pract34(8), 462-471BVA.
  • Cribb N C & Chenier T (2012)Uterine tears in horses.Equine Vet Educ24(9), 444-446WileyBlackwell.
  • McNally T P, Rodgerson D H & Lu K G (2012)Infertility in a mare with a chronic uterine tear, diagnosis and successful standing hand-assisted laparoscopic repair.Equine Vet Educ24(9), 439-443VetMedResource.
  • Freeman D E (2010)Chronic uterine torsion - a rare and unusual disease.Equine Vet Educ22(10), 487-488VetMedResource.
  • Lopez C & Carmona J U (2010)Uterine torsion diagnosed in a mare at 515 days' gestation.Equine Vet Educ22(10), 483-486VetMedResource.
  • Chaney K Pet al(2007)The effect of uterine torsion on mare and foal survival: a retrospective study, 1985-2005.Equine Vet J39(1), 33-36PubMed.
  • Vandeplassche M (1980)Obstetrician's view of the physiology of equine parturition and dystocia.Equine Vet J12(2), 45-49PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Vasey J R & Russell T (2011)Uterine Torsion.In:Equine Reproduction. 2nd end. Eds: McKinnon A O, Squires E L, Vaala E M & Varner D D. pp 2435-2440.
  • Sutter W W, Hopper S, Embertson R W & Frazer G S (2003)Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Uterine Lacerations in Mares (33 cases).In:Proc 49th AAEP Convention. pp 357-359.
  • Allen W E (1988)Fertility and Obstetrics in the Horse. Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Vandeplassche M (1987)Prepartum Complications and Dystocia.In:Current Therapy in Equine Medicine, Vol 2, N E Robinson (Ed), pp 537-542.
  • Arthur G H, Noakes D E and Pearson H (1983)Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 4th Edition. Balliere Tindall.
  • Rossdale P D and Ricketts S W (1980)Equine Stud Farm Medicine. 2nd Edition. Balliere Tindall.


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