ISSN 2398-2977      

Uterus: contagious equine metritis

pequis

Synonym(s): Taylorella equigenitalis, CEM


Introduction

  • Cause: Taylorella equigenital is, a gram negative, coccobacillus.
  • Signs: vulval discharge, lowered conception rates, infections, endometritis, vaginitis, cervicitis, abortion (rare).
  • Diagnosis: microbiology, seriology, PCR.
  • Treatment: intrauterine infusion of crystalline penicillin solution; chlorhexidine to clean out clitoral sinuses; re-establish normal clitoral flora; systemic antibiotics for chronic endometritis +/- salpingitis; clitoral sinusectomy.
  • Prognosis: guarded if occurrence of carrier state; good with early intrauterine antimicrobial therapy.
Print off the Owner factsheet on Contagious equine metritis (UK/Europe) or Contagious equine metritis (USA) to give to your clients.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Taylorella equigenitalis Taylorella equigenitalis, a gram negative, coccobacillus that does not grow serologically on conventional media.
  • Pin-point colorless colonies after 3-7 days microaerophilic culture on enriched 'chocolate' agar Taylorella equigenitalis: culture - chocolate agar.
  • Two strains exist, streptomycin resistant and sensitive.

Specific

  • Contact with a carrier stallion, mare, or fomite spread by handlers and vets.
  • Natural breeding or artificial insemination.

Pathophysiology

  • Spread from an acutely infected or carrier mare.
  • Spread from a carrier stallion.
  • Infection can be spread venereally at breeding, or indirectly by personnel and contaminated fomites.
  • Bacterial invasion of the uterus → acute inflammatory response with an influx of neutrophils to the endometrium Endometrium: endometritis acute - histology  Endometrium: endometritis chronic - histology usually about 2 days post-mating.
  • Smears of discharge may show the organism within the neutrophils.
  • Acute self-limiting infection which may → carrier state.
  • Potentially, foals born to mares which harbor CEM in the uterus during pregnancy may be born infected.

Timecourse

  • Incubation: 2-7 days post-breeding or exposure.
  • Duration of the disease tends to be short.
  • The carrier state can persist indefinitely.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Breuil M F et al (2015) Contagious equine metritis cases reported in France since 2006. Vet Rec 177 (13), 340 PubMed.
  • Schulman M L et al (2013) Contagious equine metritis: artificial reproduction changes the epidemiologic paradigm. Vet Microbiol 167 (1-2), 2-8 PubMed.
  • Timoney P J (2011) Horse species symposium. Contagious equine metritis: an insidious threat to the horse breeding industry in the United States. J Anim Sci 89 (5), 1552-1560 PubMed.
  • Ousey J C et al (2009) An investigation into the suitability of a commercial real-time PCR assay to screen for Taylorella equigenitalis in routine prebreeding equine genital swabs. Equine Vet J 41 (9), 878-882 PubMed.
  • Watson E (1997) Swabbing protocols in screening for contagious equine metritis. Vet Rec 140, 268-271 PubMed.
  • Timoney P J et al (1996) Contagious equine metritis. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 19 (3), 199-204 PubMed.
  • Timoney P J et al (1985) Contagious equine metritis, experimental infection in the donkey. Vet Microbiol 10 (3), 259-268 PubMed.
  • Dolan M et al (1984) Serologic and bacteriologic survey of three horse studs for contagious equine metritis. Aust Vet J 61 (1), 17-19 PubMed.
  • O'Brien J J et al (1982) CEM (contagious equine metritis) in Northern Ireland. Vet Rec 111 (17), 400 PubMed.
  • Timoney P J et al (1982) Isolation of the the contagious equine metritis organism from colts and fillies in the United kingdom and Ireland. Vet Rec 111 (21), 478-482 PubMed.
  • Timoney P J et al (1982) CEM (contagious equine metritis) in the republic of Ireland. Vet Rec 111 (17), 400-401 PubMed.
  • Rommel F A et al (1981) Contagious equine metritis; antibody response of experimentally infected pony mares. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2 (3), 201-213 PubMed.
  • Sahu S P et al (1980) CEM bacteria. Vet Rec 107 (18), 432 PubMed.
  • Sahu S P et al (1980) Contagious equine metritis; isolation and characterization of the etiologic agent. Am J Vet Res 41 (9), 1372-1382 PubMed.
  • Sahu S P et al (1980) Contagious equine metritis; effect of intrauterine inoculation of contagious equine metritis agent in pony mares. Am J Vet Res 41 (1), 5-9 PubMed.
  • Chandler N et al (1979) Swabbing mares and stallions for contagious equine metritis. Vet Rec 105 (24), 561 VetMedResource.
  • Falconer-Taylor R A et al (1979) CEM sampling. Vet Rec 104 (25), 585 PubMed.
  • Swerczek T W et al (1979) Contagious equine metritis-outbreak of the disease in Kentucky and laboratory methods for diagnosing the disease. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 27, 361-365 PubMed.
  • Swaney L M et al (1978) CEM; bacteriological methods. Vet Rec 102 (2), 43 PubMed.
  • Timoney P J et al (1978) CEM and the foaling mare. Vet Rec 102 (11), 246 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Horserace Betting Levy Board (2017) Codes of Practice. 5th Floor, 21 Bloomsbury Street, London WC1B 3HF, UK. Tel: +44 (0)207 333 0043; Fax: +44 (0)207 333 0041; Email: enquiries@hblb.org.uk; Website: http://codes.hblb.org.uk.
  • Timoney P J (2011) Contagious Equine Metritis. In: Equine Reproduction. Eds: McKinnon A O, Squires E L, Vaala W E & Varner D D. pp 2399-2409. Wiley-Blackwell, UK.
  • Colahan P T et al (1991) Equine Medicine and Surgery. Vol 2. 4th edn. American Veterinary Publications, Inc. ISBN: 0 939674 27 0. pp 1070 (concise summary of main points).

Organisation(s)

UK

  • Thoroughbred Breeder's Association, Stanstead House, The Avenue, Newmarket, Suffolk, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1638 661321.
  • For non-thoroughbreds; Welfare Department, British Horse Society, Stoneleigh, Kenilworth, Warks, CV8 2LR, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1203 696697.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code