Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Urine: anuria/oliguria

Contributor(s): Carla Sommardahl, Rachael Conwell

Introduction

  • A clinical sign of many disease entities affecting the kidney.
  • Cause: acute renal failure of any cause, including pre-renal failure, intrinsic renal failure and post-renal failure.
  • Signs: decreased to absent production of urine by kidneys, pollakiuria, depends on cause of renal failure.
  • Diagnosis: urinalysis, BUN and blood creatinine analysis, ultrasonography of bladder and kidneys.
  • Treatment: depends on specific etiology; fluid therapy, furosemide, dopmine.
  • Prognosis: depends on specific etiology; oliguric renal failure has a poorer prognosis compared to non-oliguric renal failure.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Disruption of normal glomerular and tubular function of kidney in maintaining water and electrolyte balance.
  • Decreased glomerular filtration secondary to systemic hemodynamic prerenal causes such as dehydration and shock, or direct renal damage from toxins, infectious agents, or disruption in urine flow.

Predisposing factors

General

Specific

  • Depends on specific cause.

Pathophysiology

  • Systemic hypotension -> decreased glomerular filtration (prerenal causes) and decreased production of urine.
  • Direct damage to the nephron -> decreased urine production (renal causes).
  • Disruption in urine flow causing nehron damage (post-renal causes).

Timecourse

  • Depends on specific cause.

Epidemiology

  • Depends on specific cause.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • McLeland S (2015) Diseases of the equine urinary system. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 31 (2), 377-387 PubMed.
  • Wong D M, Witty D, Alcott C J, Sponsellar B A, Wang C & Hepworth K (2013) Renal replacement therapy in healthy adult horses. J Vet Intern Med 27 (2), 308-316 PubMed.
  • Han J H & McKenzie H C (2008) Intermittent peritoneal dialysis for the treatment of acute renal failure in two horses. Equine Vet Educ 20 (5), 256-264 VetMedResource.
  • Geor R J (2007) Acute renal failure in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 23 (3), 593-612 PubMed.
  • Gallatin L L, Couetil L L & Ash S R (2005) Use of continuous-flow peritoneal dialysis for the treatment of acute renal failure in an adult horse. JAVMA 226 (5), 756-759 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Bayly W (2010) Acute Renal Failure. In: Equine Internal Medicine. Eds: Reed S M,  Bayly W M & Sellon D. W B Saunders & Co, Philadelphia.
  • Orsini J A & Dallap Schaer B (2008) Urinary system. In: Equine Emergencies Treatment and Procedures. Eds: Orsini J A & Divers T J. Saunders Elsevier, Missouri.


ADDED