Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Trachea: stenosis

Synonym(s): Tracheal stenosis

Contributor(s): Christopher Brown, Timothy Mair, Nicola Menzies-Gow

Introduction

  • Cause: rare cause of respiratory obstruction due to primary or secondary factors: direct injury, eg fracture of cartilage rings following kicks, impacts with railings or after tracheostomy intubation; or impingement by local space occupying lesions such as abscess, neoplasm or hematoma. See also Trachea: collapse Trachea: collapse - a congenital disorder of small ponies and miniature horses.
  • Signs: reduced performance and inspiratory dyspnea.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical signs, direct palpation, radiography and endoscopy.
  • Treatment: dependent on length of trachea damaged:
    • Narrow → tracheal resection and anastamosis .
    • Large → application of tracheal prosthesis .
    • Refracture of cartilage rings may be required if the injury is long standing.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Trauma.
  • Tracheostomy.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Mucosal trauma → inflammation (tracheitis) and hematoma formation → fibrosis → narrowing and local loss of tracheal flexibility.
  • Lymph node abscessation/hematoma/neoplasia → space occupying lesion → pressure on trachea → stenosis.
  • Lower airway inflammation → decreased tracheal resistance to changes in airway pressure → collapse (hypothetical).

Timecourse

  • Acute to chronic.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Siger Let al (1998) Tracheal stenosis and collapse in horses. Comp Cont Educ20, 628-636 VetMedResource.
  • Mair T S & Lane J G (1990) Tracheal obstruction in two horses and a donkey. Vet Rec 126 (13), 303-304 PubMed.

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