Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Tibia: fracture - malleolar

Contributor(s): Prof Gary M Baxter, Vetstream Ltd, Chris Whitton

Introduction

  • Hock injury, lateral > medial, multiple or single fragments; may be fracture of entire malleolus.
  • Cause: external trauma, avulsion of collateral ligament(s).
  • Signs: acute lameness   Musculoskeletal: gait evaluation  , swelling, pain on palpation and flexion   Musculoskeletal: manipulative tests  , tarsocrural joint effusion if articular.
  • Diagnosis: radiography   Hindlimb: radiography  .
  • Treatment: removal or reattachment of fragment(s).
  • Prognosis: variable: good to guarded.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Direct injury, torsion/torque during flexion   →   avulsion of one or more of the short collateral ligaments   →   single or multiple fragments; or entire fracture of malleolus including origin of long collateral ligament   →   tarsocrural instability.
  • Medial malleolus is less susceptible to trauma and wider than lateral, so less likely to fracture.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Getman L M, Ross M W & Smith M A (2012)Surgical repair of fractures of the lateral and medial tibial malleoli in a yearling Arabian filly.Equine Vet Educ24(10), 496-502 VetMedResource.
  • Smith M R W (2012)Fractures of the tibial malleoli.Equine Vet Educ24(10), 503-506 Wiley Online Library.
  • Smith M R W & Wright I M (2011)Arthroscopic treatment of fractures of the lateral malleolus of the tibia: 26 cases.Equine Vet J43(3), 280-287 PubMed.


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