Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Temporomandibular joint: fracture

Contributor(s): Stephen Adams, Graham Munroe

Introduction

  • Cause: trauma to mandible; rare.
  • Signs: pain, soft tissue swelling around joint, malocclusion of teeth, instability of jaw, inappetance, crepitation.
  • Diagnosis: radiography.
  • Treatment: first aid, supportive care, dietary changes, attention to teeth, surgery in selected cases.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Direct or indirect trauma especially kicks and falls.

Pathophysiology

  • Injuries are rare because of the inherent stability of the joint (strong joint capsule and mandibular ligament) and its extensive muscular cover.
  • Forces from a direct kick to the mandible may be reflected to the thinner portions of the vertical ramus   →   subcondylar fracture +/- luxation .
  • Instability may   →   secondary degenerative joint disease (DJD) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Patterson L J, Shappell K K and Hurting M B (1989)Mandibular condylectomy in a horse.JAVMA195, 101-102 PubMed.
  • Barber S M, Doige C E and Humphreys S G (1985)Mandibular condylectomy technique and results in normal horses.Vet Surg14, 79-86 VetMedResource.


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