Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Teeth: periodontal disease

Contributor(s): Gordon Baker, Chris Pearce, Jill Richardson, Bayard A Rucker, Vetstream Ltd

Introduction

  • Cause: impaction of food in gingival sulcus usually at interproximal spaces (tooth juncture).
  • Diagnosis: oral examination, radiography.
  • Signs: halitosis, quidding, food pocketing between teeth; tooth loosening and loss.
  • Treatment: removal of impacted food material, debridement of periodontium; advanced cases - extraction   Teeth: extraction  .

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Diastema formation (pathological increased width of interproximal space).
  • Impaction of feed in gingival sulcus and interproximal space.
  • Poor compression of arcade, eg draught breed.
  • Poor alignment of teeth, eg displacement of 308, 408 in Arab, small Welsh Ponies, Shetlands.
  • Dental extraction and subsequent mesial drift with resultant diastema formation.
  • Necrotic food material in interproximal space   →    gingival inflammation   →    gingival recession   →    more food impacts in diastema   →    further gingivitis, peripheral cemental caries   →    change of chewing pattern   →    further problems.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Poor quality feed.
  • Malocclusions.
  • Insufficient lateral excursion.

Specific

  • Diastema/gaps between teeth.
  • Malpositioned teeth.
  • Shear mouth.

Pathophysiology

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dixon P M (2014) A long-term study on the clinical effects of mechanical widening of cheek teeth diastemata for treatment of periodontitis in 202 horses (2008-2011). Equine Vet J 46 (1), 76-80 PubMed.
  • Tremaine H & Pearce C (2012) A modern approach to equine dentistry 4. Routine treatments. In Pract 34 (6), 330-347 VetMedResource.
  • Tremaine H & Casey M (2012) A modern approach to equine dentistry 2. Identifying lesions. In Pract 34 (2), 78-89 VetMedResource.
  • Casey M B & Tremaine W H (2010) Dental diastemata and periodontal disease secondary to axially rotated maxillary cheek teeth in three horses. Equine Vet Educ 22 (9), 439-444 VetMedResource
  • Ramzan P H L (2010) Cheek tooth malocclusions and periodontal disease. Equine Vet Educ 22 (9), 445-450 Wiley Online Library.
  • Dixon P M, Andrew R, Brannon H et al (2004) Survey of the provision of prophylactic dental care for horses in Great Britain and Ireland between 1999-2002. Vet Rec 155 (22), 693-698 PubMed.
  • Dixon P M, Tremaine W H, Pickles K et al (1999) Equine dental disease Part 1 - a long-term study of 400 cases - disorders of incisor, cannie and first premolar teeth. Equine Vet J 31 (5), 369-377 PubMed.
  • Dixon P M et al (1999) Equine dental disease Part 2 - a long-term study of 400 cases - disorders of development and eruption and variations in position of the cheek teeth. Equine Vet J 31 (6), 519-528 PubMed.
  • Mueller P O et al (1998) Dental sepsis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 14 (2), 349-363 PubMed.
  • Lowder M Q et al (1998) Dental diseases in geriatric horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 14 (2), 365-380 PubMed.
  • Lane J G (1994) A review of dental disorders of the horse, their treatment and possible fresh approaches to management. Equine Vet Educ (1), 13-21 Wiley Online Library.

Other sources of information

  • Baker G J & Easley J (1999) Eds. Abnormalities of wear and periodontal disease. In: Equine Dental Disease. pp 70-78.


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