Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Scrotum: trauma

Contributor(s): Terry Blanchard, Graham Munroe, Elaine Watson

Introduction

  • Cause: most commonly a kick during mating.
  • Signs: scrotal edema and hemorrhage, orchitis, secondary bacterial infection.
  • Diagnosis: history and clinical signs.
  • Treatment: surgical closure of wounds.
  • Prognosis: temporary or permanent effect on fertility.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Kicks during mating.
  • Jumping over hedges and fences.
  • Fighting.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Poor restraint of mare during mating.

Pathophysiology

  • Trauma to scrotum   →   scrotal and preputial edema, scrotal hemorrhage, elevated scrotal temperature, pain, hematocoele formation or rupture of the tunica albuginea (often leads to testicular hematoma   Testis: hematoma  ).
  • Damage involving the vaginal processes may lead to adhesions particularly if hematocele occurs.
  • May be associated with enlargement of testis and orchitis   Testis: orchitis - bacterial  .
  • Trauma to scrotum may result in epididymal duct blockage   →   ejaculation of sperm-free seminal fluid .
  • Puncture wounds or lacerations of the scrotum cause additional problems especially if secondarily infected by bacteria.
  • If wounds penetrates lumen of vaginal process   →   peritonitis   Abdomen: peritonitis  .
  • Intrascrotal hemorrhage and/or edema often becomes organised if left untreated to form fibrous tissue; also cicatricial scar formation that obstructs the epididymis may interfere with thermoregulation of spermatogenesis leading to degeneration of seminiferous tubules and progressive testicular atrophy.

Timecourse

  • Acute onset.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


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