Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Scapula: fracture

Contributor(s): Patrick Colahan, Graham Munroe

Introduction

  • Incidence: uncommon fractures - supraglenoid tubercle fracture   Scapula: fracture - supraglenoid tubercle  most common; intact males and young animals appear most at risk.
  • Cause: direct trauma.
  • Signs: acute onset severe forelimb lameness with variable swelling and swinging leg lameness.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, radiography   Forelimb: radiography  , intra-articular anesthesia   Forelimb: joint anesthesia  , scintigraphy   Bone: scintigraphy  (occasionally useful).
  • Treatment: depends upon the specific fracture type and configuration   Musculoskeletal: fracture  .
  • Prognosis: affected by the fracture configuration and subsequent treatment.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Direct trauma, including kicks and running into objects.
  • Falls, especially during racing/jumping.
  • Post-scapular notch resection for treatment of suprascapular paralysis   Suprascapular nerve: paralysis  .

Pathophysiology

  • Usually follows direct trauma to shoulder region.
  • Can follow scapular notch surgery to treat suprascapular nerve injury.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Vallance S A et al (2013) Case-control study of high-speed exercise history of Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse racehorses that died related to a complete scapular fracture. Equine Vet J 45 (3), 284-292 PubMed.
  • Vallance S A et al (2012) Characteristics of Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse racehorses that sustained a complete scapular fracture. Equine Vet J 44 (4), 425-431 PubMed.
  • Vallance S A, Spriet M & Stover M (2011) Catastrophic scapular fractures in Californian racehorses: Pathology, morphometry and bone density. Equine Vet J 43 (6), 676-685 PubMed.
  • Vallance S A, Lumsden J M & O'Sullivan C B (2009) Scapula stress fractures in Thoroughbred racehorses: Eight cases (1997-2006). Equine Vet Educ 21 (10), 554-559 AAEP.
  • Dart A J et al (1992) Repair of a supraglenoid tuberosity fracture in a horse. JAVMA 201 (1), 95-96 PubMed.
  • Bukowiecki C F et al (1989) Internal fixation of comminuted transverse scapular fracture in a foal. JAVMA 195 (6), 781-783 PubMed.
  • Shamis L D et al (1989) Internal fixation of a transverse scapular neck fracture in a filly. JAVMA 195 (10), 1391-1392 PubMed.
  • Schneider J E et al (1985) Scapular notch resection for suprascapular nerve decompression in 12 horses. JAVMA 187 (10), 1019-1020 PubMed.
  • McIlwraith C W (1983) Surgery of the hock, stifle and shoulder. Vet Clin North Am (Large Anim Pract) (2), 333-362 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Adams S B (1996) Fractures of the scapula. In: Equine Fracture Repair. Ed: A J Nixon. W B Saunders, USA. ISBN 0-7216-6754-6.


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