Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Sarcoptic mange

Contributor(s): Dawn Logas, Sue Paterson, David Senter

Introduction

  • Rare pruritic condition.
  • Cause:Sarcoptes scabiei  Sarcoptes scabiei  .
  • Signs: alopecia, hyperkeratosis and intense pruritus.
  • Diagnosis: identification of mite in skin scrapings or response to therapy.
  • Treatment: topical parasiticides approved for use in horses.
  • Prognosis: can be refractory to treatment.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General
  • Debility - immune compromise.

Pathophysiology

  • Mite burrows into epidermis   →   lays eggs   →   epidermal damage   →   exudation and excoriation.
  • Mites burrow into epidermis and lay eggs   →   hypersensitivity reaction to mite and its products, intense pruritus   →   serous exudation, papules, wheals, skin thickened and edematous   →   progressive emaciation and possible death from exhaustion and protein/serum loss from exudative dermatitis.

Timecourse

  • Life cycle 21 days.

Epidemiology

  • Burrowing female creates tunnel in epidermis and feeds on serum exuding from damaged tissues.
  • Eggs laid in epidermis, larvae hatch in 3-5 days and crawl onto skin surface.
  • Larvae burrow into epidermis   →   'moulting pockets'.
  • Transmission is by direct contact.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Littlewood J D (2011)Equine sarcoptic mange: Re-emergence of a previously notifiable disease?Equine Vet Educ23(1), 24-26 Wiley Online Library.
  • George J Bet al(1992)Louse and mite infestation in domestic animals in northern Nigeria.Trop Anim Health Prod24(2), 121-124 PubMed.
  • Morner T (1992)Sarcoptic mange in Swedish wildlife.Rev Sci Tech11(4), 1115-1121 (Review) PubMed.


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