Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Sarcoidosis

Synonym(s): Granulomatous disease

Contributor(s): Rosanna Marsella, Sue Paterson

Introduction

  • An idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease, which has been reported in horses, cattle and human beings, which is characterized by perivascular granulomatous and lymphoplasmacytic inflammation in many organ systems.
  • Equine granulomatous disease appears to be comparable to human sarcoidosis.
  • Cause: unknown; it is hypothesized that this disease represents an immunologic reaction to an antigenic stimulus.
  • Signs: exfoliative dermatitis, wasting disease affecting multiple organs.
  • Diagnosis: based on clinical signs and histopathology.
  • Treatment: immunosuppressive doses of glucocorticoids may provide benefit.
  • Prognosis: in rare cases spontaneous remission has been reported. Prognosis depends on the extend and chronicity of the disease.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Any antigenic stimulation.

Specific

  • Bacteria, egMycobacterium intracellulare, toxins (ingestion of hairy vetch) andBorrelia burgdorferi  Borrelia burgdorferi  have all been associated with generalized granulomatous disease.

Pathophysiology

  • It is proposed that aberrant cell mediated response develops against antigenic stimulation   →   accumulation of lymphocytes (T helper, CD4+), and macrophages.
  • This inflammatory response may affect multiple organs besides the skin.
  • In the skin it   →    alopecia, scaling and plaque formation.

Timecourse

  • Usually chronic progressive disease that develops over several months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Sellers R S, Toribio R E & Blomme E A (2001)Idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease and macrophage expression of PTHrP in a miniature pony.J Comp Pathol125(2-3), 214-218 PubMed.
  • Woods L W, Johnson B, Hietala S K, Galey F D & Gillen D (1992)Systemic granulomatous disease in a horse grazing pasture containing vetch (Viciaspp).J Vet Diagn Invest4(3), 356-360 PubMed.
  • Heath S E, Bell R J, Clark E G & Haines D M (1990)Idiopathic granulomatous disease involving the skin in a horse.JAVMA197(8), 1033-1036 PubMed.


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