Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Rhinovirus infection

Synonym(s): The Virus

Contributor(s): Christopher Brown, Timothy Mair, Ruth Morgan, Vetstream Ltd

Introduction

  • Cause: infection with equine rhinovirus   Rhinovirus   A or B (picornaviruses), previously known as equine rhinovirus 1, 2 and 3.
  • Incidence: widespread - 60-80% of horses have antibody titers by 5 years of age.
  • Signs: mainly subclinical or mild upper respiratory tract (URT) infection; pyrexia, nasal discharge.
  • Diagnosis: virus isolation.
  • Treatment: rarely necessary.
  • Prognosis: good.
Print off the Owner factsheet on Respiratory problems in your horse to give to your clients.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Equine rhinovirus A, B and B2, and similar acid-stable picornaviruses   Rhinovirus  .

Predisposing factors

General
  • Young antibody-negative animals.
  • Contact with adult animal groups.

Pathophysiology

  • Infection of URT by Equine Rhinovirus   Rhinovirus  .
  • May be asymptomatic or cause mild acute URT disease.
  • Unclear.
  • Viremia rapidly (7-14 days)   →   neutralizing antibody which persists for several years and confers protection.
  • Virus is shed in feces following viremia.
  • ERAV is more likely to cause clinical sigs than ERBV and ERBV2.

Epidemiology

  • ERAV infection results in a long-lasting antibody response which prevents further disease but does not cross-protect against ERBV.
  • A carrier state or latent infection is thought to exist in some adult horses with a prolonged period of viral shedding.
  • Shedding acts as source of infection, via inhalation, to young horses or others with low antibody titers.
  • ERAV is excreted in urine for prolonged periods of time acting as a source of infection.
  • Racehorses are often infected in their 2nd or 3rd year when they are in training.
  • ERBV or ERBV2 infection is not associated with high levels of neutralizing antibodies indicating natural immunity may be poor.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMedandVetMedResource.
  • Diaz-Méndezet al(2014)Characteristics of respiratory tract disease in horses inoculated with equine rhinitis A virus.Am J Vet Res75(2), 169-178PubMed.
  • McBrearty K A, Murray A & Dunowska M (2013)A survey of respiratory viruses in New Zealand horses.N Z Vet J61(5), 254-261PubMed.


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