Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Plasma cell myeloma

Synonym(s): Multiple myeloma

Contributor(s): Annalisa Barrelet, Katherine Edgar, Prof Derek Knottenbelt

Introduction

  • See Bone marrow: disorders - overview   Bone marrow: disorders - overview  .
  • Very rare.
  • No breed or sex prediliction.
  • Has been reported in ages 3 months to 22 years.
  • Cause: malignant proliferation of plasma cells or terminally differentiated B-lymphocytes.
  • Signs: non-specific and related to bone marrow involvement and organ infiltration.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, hematology, urinalysis, bone marrow biopsy.
  • Treatment: corticosteriods, chemotherapy, timely euthanasia.
  • Prognosis: poor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Plasma cell myeloma is characterized by a malignant proliferation of immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells derived from the B-cell series of immunocytes.
  • Immunocompetant plasma cell clones

Pathophysiology

  • The symptoms of muliple myeloma are related to the growth of the neoplastic cells and their secreted products.
  • Bone marrow invasion leads to architectural disturbance and erythropoiesis inhibition.
  • Secretion of calcium-moblizing osteoclastic activating factors stimulates local bone resorption.
  • Monoclonal gammaglobulinemia secretions have antigen-binding specificities and may induce bleeding disorders by complexing with coagulation factors, cause immune-mediated anemia, thrombocytopenia or   →   amyloidosis.
  • Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia and Bence-Jones light chain proteinuria damage the tubular cells and may lead to renal failure.
  • Immuonsuppression is caused by depressed serum levels of normal immunoglobulins and reduced humoral immunity leading to a high susceptibilty to secondary infections.

Timecourse

  • A couple of months without treatment.
  • Over a year if responds to chemotherapy.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Edwards D F, Parker J W, Wilkinson & J E Hellman (1993) Plasma cell myeloma in the horse : A case report and literature review. J Vet Intern Med 7, 169-176 PubMed.
  • MacAllister C, Qualls C, Tyler R et al (1987) Multiple myeloma in a horse. JAVMA 191, 337-339 PubMed.
  • Markel M D & Dorr T E (1986) Multiple myeloma in a horse. JAVMA 188 (6), 621-623 PubMed.
  • Drew R A & Greatorex J C (1974) Vertebral plasma cell myeloma causing posterior paralysis in a horse. Equine Vet J 6, 131-134 PubMed.


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