Equis ISSN 2398-2977

PIP joint: luxation

Contributor(s): Jeffrey Watkins

Introduction

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma.

Specific

  • Previous injury to support structures of distal limb.
  • Dorsal subluxation may occur as a chronic sequela to severe suspensory injuries.

Pathophysiology

  • Luxation:
    • Trapped foot   →   twisted pulling on limb   →   tearing of lateral or medial collateral ligament   →   lateral or medial luxation.
    • Fracture of P2   Middle phalanx: fracture  .
  • Dorsal subluxation:
    • Loss of fetlock support.
    • Contraction of straight sesamoidean ligament.
    • Flexural deformity of distal interphalangeal joint   Musculoskeletal: flexural deformity  .
    • Suspensory ligament desmotomy with deep digital flexor tenotomy.
  • Palmar subluxation:
    • Tearing of palmar support structures, eg jump from height   →   landing on forelimbs.
    • Biaxial palmar/plantar eminence and comminuted fractures of the middle phalanx.

Timecourse

  • Acute.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Garvican E & Clegg P (2007)Clinical aspects of the equine proximal interphalangeal (pastern) joint.UK Vet12(6), 11-16 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Watkins J P (1996)Fractures of the middle phalanx.In:Equine Fracture Repair.Ed. A J Nixon. W B Saunders, Philadelphia, ISBN 0-7216-6754-6.


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