Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Peroneal nerve: trauma

Contributor(s): Caroline Hahn

Introduction

  • Common injury.
  • Cause: kick or pressure to the lateral stifle, a tibial fracture and anesthesia.
  • Signs: inability to flex hock and extend digits, shorter stride, knuckling of fetlock, hypalgesia of craniolateral portion of limb.
  • Diagnosis: pelvic limb lameness.
  • Treatment: DMSO, corticosteroids, surgery.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • From blunt trauma to the lateral condyle of the femur.
  • From fractures of the lateral condyle of the femur.
  • By a kick or pressure to the lateral stifle.
  • A tibial fracture.
  • Anesthesia.

Pathophysiology

  • The peroneal nerve is a distal branch of the sciatic nerve.
  • Injury to peroneal nerve leads to alterations in flexor muscles of the tarsus.
  • Injury to peroneal nerve leads to alterations in extensor muscles of the digits.
  • Peroneal nerve sectioning in ponies results in the above gait deficits initially.
  • Paralysis of the peroneal branch results in extension of the tarsus and flexion of the fetlock and interphalangeal joints.
  • Atrophy of the cranial lateral muscles of the gaskin may be expected.
  • Injury to this nerve is a component of sciatic injury.

Timecourse

  • Injury from kicks by other horses or from lateral recumbency will lead to transient signs that will eventually improve.
  • Ponies with peroneal nerve sectioning show within 3 month minimal gait deficits.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading


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