ISSN 2398-2977      

Penis: trauma

pequis

Introduction

  • Abrasions and lacerations of the penis are relatively common in stallions.
  • Cause: often occurs during mating.
  • Signs: wounds usually superficial; often considerable hemorrhage.
  • Diagnosis: history; clinical signs.
  • Treatment: primary repair may be necessary.
  • Prognosis: fair to good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma during mating:
  • Sudden movement of mare.
  • Kick from mare   Penis: trauma 04 - kick hematoma    Penis: trauma 01 - lateral view    Penis: trauma 02 - caudal view  .
  • Tail hairs caught in vulva   Penis: trauma 05 - intromission  tail hairs  .
  • Vulval sutures.
  • Improperly fitted stallion ring.
  • Attempting to mate across a fence.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Erect penis is particularly susceptible to injury.

Pathophysiology

  • Trauma, usually during mating when penis is erect and exposed   →   laceration/abrasion to penis.
  • Trauma   →   lacerations or abrasions   →   often superficial, involving considerable hemorrhage from plexus of veins outside tunica albuginea   →   blood in ejaculate (hemospermia   Semen: hemosemen  ).
  • May involve cavernous spaces or urethra, or rupture of tunica albuginea.
  • Superficial wounds if properly treated heal without complication.
  • If not treated by primary closure   →   suppuration, cellulitis and generalized swelling   →   fibrosis   →   may prevent horse either extending free end of penis or withdrawing free end back into prepuce (paraphimosis   Penis: paraphimosis  ).
  • Unsutured wounds into the cavernous spaces can result in the creation of shunts between cavernous spaces.
  • Urethral lacerations generally heal without stricture by secondary intention if longitudinal but transecting types can lead to stenosis or fistulae.

Timecourse

  • Acute onset.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Schumacher J & Vaughan J T (1988) Surgery of the penis and prepuce. Vet Clin North Am Eqine Pract (3), 473-491 PubMed.

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