Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Patella: luxation

Contributor(s): Prof Gary M Baxter, Chris Whitton

Introduction

  • Cause: rare congenital or acquired (secondary to joint disease   Musculoskeletal: osteoarthritis (joint disease)  or trauma to stifle) disorder.
  • Signs: hindlimb lameness, may be bilateral, stifle swelling, abnormal gait.
  • Diagnosis: manual examination, radiography.
  • Treatment: surgery.
  • Prognosis: poor to guarded for athletic career.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Congenital malformation of the femoral trochlea.
  • Joint disease.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Breed.
  • Previous stifle injury/disease.

Pathophysiology

  • Congenital abnormality in the topography of the femoropatellar joint, eg shallow trochlea groove / hypoplastic trochlear ridges   →   quadriceps flexion pulls patella laterally.
  • Femoropatellar joint disease   Musculoskeletal: osteoarthritis (joint disease)    →   remodeling of the trochlea ridges   →   loss of normal tracking for patella   →   luxation.
  • Trauma to patella ligaments   →   patella instability   →   luxation.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • O'Meara B & Lischer C J (2009) Surgical management of a pony with a traumatic medial luxation of the patella. Equine Vet Educ 21 (9), 458-463 VetMedResource.
  • Busschers E (2009) Patellar luxation in horses: Treatment and prognosis. Equine Vet Educ 21 (9), 464-466 Wiley Online Library.
  • Milner P (2009) Lateral patellar luxation associated with severe osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the lateral trochlear ridge. UK Vet 14 (7), 5-6 VetMedResource.
  • Hart J C A, Jann H W & Moorman V J (2009) Surgical correction of a medial patellar luxation in a foal using a modified recession trochleoplasty technique. Equine Vet Educ 21 (6), 307-311 VetMedResource.
  • Talbot A M & Singer E R (2009) Luxation of the patella in foals. Equine Vet Educ 21 (6), 313-314 VetMedResource.
  • Englebert T A et al (1998) Lateral patellar luxation in miniature horses. Vet Surg 22 (4)293-297 PubMed.
  • Kobluk C N (1998) Correction of patellar luxation by recession sulcoplasty in three foals. Vet Surg 22 (4)298-300 PubMed.


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