Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Paranasal sinuses: bacterial sinusitis

Synonym(s): Bacterial sinus infection

Contributor(s): Christopher Brown, Paddy Dixon, Vetstream Ltd, Nicola Menzies-Gow

Introduction

  • Infection of paranasal sinuses. Exudate may collect in sinuses as the normal mucociliary clearance is disturbed by viral infections that cause deciliation, possibly ulceration of mucosa and thus restriction of drainage ostia with accumulation and infection of contents. Subsequent bacterial infection.
  • Cause: can be primary or secondary to another intrasinus disorder; 50% of cases have dental origin.
  • Signs: unilateral mucopurulent → purulent nasal discharge.
  • Diagnosis: history, signs, radiography, endoscopy.
  • Treatment: simple primary sinusitis may resolve naturally. Drainage and lavage required in persistent cases. Treat underlying cause, eg apical abscess, mycosis.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Can be primary or secondary to another intrasinus disorder.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Variety of causes:
    • Past upper respiratory tract infections.
    • Dental apical infections.
    • Secondary to intrasinus tumors, cysts, etc.

Pathophysiology

  • URT infection → compromised mucociliary clearance → mucous/exudate retained in sinuses → secondary bacterial infection.

Timecourse

  • Days to weeks.

Epidemiology

  • Not applicable.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dixon P Met al (2012) Equine paranasal sinus disease: A long-term study of 200 cases (1977-2009): Ancillary diagnostic findings and involvement of the various sinus compartments. Equine Vet J 44 (3), 267-271 PubMed.
  • Dixon P Met al (2012) Equine paranasal sinus disease: A long-term study of 200 cases (1977-2009): Treatments and long-term results of treatments. Equine Vet J 44 (3), 272-276 PubMed.
  • Finnegan C M, Townsend N B, Barnett T P & Barakzai S Z (2012) Radiographic identification of the equine ventral conchal bulla. Vet Rec 169 (26), 683 PubMed.
  • O'Leary J M & Dixon P M (2011) A review of equine paranasal sinusitis. Aetiopathogenesis, clinical signs and ancillary diagnostic techniques. Equine Vet J 23 (3), 148-159 VetMedResource.
  • Barakzai S (2004) The equine paranasal sinuses. UK Vet 9 (8), 5-8.
  • Beard W L & Hardy J (2001) Diagnosis of conditions of the paranasal sinuses in the horse. Equine Vet Educ 13 (5), 265 VetMedResource.
  • Tremaine W H, Clarke C J & Dixon P M (1999) Histopathological findings in equine sinonasal disorders. Equine Vet J 31 (4), 296-303 PubMed.
  • Lane J G (1993) The management of sinus disorders in horses. Part I Equine Vet Educ 5, 5-9 VetMedResource.
  • Lane J G (1993) The management of sinus disorders in horses. Part II. Equine Vet Educ 5, 69-73 VetMedResource.


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