ISSN 2398-2977      

Optic nerve: neuritis

pequis

Introduction

  • Inflammation of the optic nerve.
  • Incidence: rare condition; accompanies a number of systemic disease, panuveitis or multifocal central nervous system (CNS) infections.
  • Signs: unilateral or bilateral lesions some of which may be subclinical, whilst others are obscured by uveitis pathology; severe optic neuritis   →   blindness, swelling and hyperemia of optic disk, grey/white exudation from edges of optic disk.
  • Treatment: directed at the primary disease problem and suppressing the inflammatory processes.
  • Prognosis: guarded to poor - common sequele are ischemic retinopathy and optic atrophy.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Causes of panuveitis including chorioretinitis , leptospirosis ,Onchocerca cervicalislarvae , and immune-mediated cases.
  • Septic lesions of the optic nerve +/- septic uveitis +/- panophthalmitis eg septicemia in foals/adults , septic endocarditis , multifocal protozoan encephalomyelitis includingToxoplasma gondiiandSarcocystis neurona.
  • Bacterial; organisms including:Streptococcusspp   Streptococcus spp  especiallyStreptococcus equi,Rhodococcus equi  Rhodococcus equi  ,Borrelia burgdorferi(Lyme Disease)   Borrelia burgdorferi  ,Actinobacillus equuli.
  • Other causes are rare: include: Togaviral encephalomyelitis, Borna Disease , Equine Herpes Virus I (EHV1)   Abortion: EHV-1  , EHV4   Equine herpesvirus  .

Pathophysiology

  • Inflammation of the optic nerve.
  • A rare condition that accompanies a number of systemic diseases, uveitis /chorioretinitis and multifocal CNS infections.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Rebhun W C (1992) Retinal and optic nerve diseasesVet Clin N A Equine Pract (3), 587-608 PubMed.
  • Matthews A G, Crispin S M and Parker J (1990) The equine fundus III - Pathologic variants. Equine Vet J 10, 55-61 Wiley Online Library.
  • Crispin S M, Matthews A G & Parker J (1990) The equine fundus I - Examination, embryology, structure and function. Equine Vet J 10, 42-49 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Brooks D E (1999) Equine Ophthalmology. In: Veterinary Ophthalmology. Ed: Gelatt K N. 3rd edn. 1053-1116.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!