Equis ISSN 2398-2977

MCP / MTP joint: disease - overview

Synonym(s): Fetlock joint disease

Contributor(s): Helen Herinckx, Jessica A Kidd-Millar, Graham Munroe, Vetstream Ltd

Introduction

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Trauma

Infectious

Developmental

Congenital and perinatal conditions

Immune-mediated

Miscellaneous

  • Tumors are extremely rare.
  • Osseous cyst-like lesions occur in the distal weightbearing surface of the condyles, especially medial, of MC3, and the proximal phalanx   Bone: osseous cyst-like lesions  .

Predisposing factors

General
  • Depends on individual condition.
  • Many of the traumatic conditions are predisposed by poor fetlock conformation, eg angular limb deformities or excessive sloping pasterns. In addition, poor foot conformation, including long toe/low heel syndrome and mediolateral imbalances can increase the incidence of fetlock disease.
  • The fetlock joint is a high motion joint and is injured mainly in fast work such as galloping or other athletic activities.

Pathophysiology

  • The fetlock joint comprises the articulations between the distal third metacarpal/metatarsal bone (MC3/MT3), the proximal phalanx and both proximal sesamoid bones.
  • The MTP joint is usually more upright than the MCP joint and has a greater normal range of flexion.
  • They are high motion joints which are heavily loaded and exposed to complex torsion forces during exercise/work.
  • There is a complex ligamentous arrangement around the fetlock joint which constrains its normal movement almost exclusively to sagittal motion.
  • The suspensory apparatus attaches to the proximal sesamoid bones proximally at the suspensory branches and distally at the distal sesamoidean ligaments.
  • See also: Joint: synovial pathobiology   Joint: synovial pathobiology  .

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Richardson D W (2003) Metacarpophalangeal Joint. In: Diagnosis & Management of Lameness in the Horse. Eds: Ross M W & Dyson S J. Saunders, USA. pp 348-362.
  • Ross M W (2003) Metatarsophalangeal Joint. In: Diagnosis & Management of Lameness in the Horse. Eds: Ross M W & Dyson S J. Saunders, USA. pp 420-433.
  • Bertone A L (2002) The Fetlock. In: Adams Lameness in Horses. 5th edn. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, USA. pp 768-799.


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