Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Mandible/maxilla: fracture

Contributor(s): Stephen Adams, Patrick Colahan, Bud G E Fackelman, Chris Whitton

Introduction

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Incisive region
  • Direct trauma to rostral mandible.
  • Young horses playing with fences, feeders, buckets   →   pull back while biting.

Maxilla, caudal horizontal and vertical mandibular rami

  • Kicks, collisions, self-induced trauma.
  • Maxilla may have subtle depression fractures   →   open fracture with substantial bone loss   →   exposure of the paranasal sinuses, dental roots or periorbital tissues.
  • Fractures of caudal horizontal and vertical rami less common because of wider, thicker bone, protection by masseter muscle and molar reinforcement.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Caldwell F J & Davis H A (2012) Surgical reconstruction of a severely comminuted mandibular fracture in a horse. Equine Vet Educ 24 (5), 217-221 VetMedResource.
  • Kuemmerle J M (2012) Mandibular fractures in horses. Equine Vet Educ 24 (5), 222-224 Wiley Online Library.
  • Ramzan P H L (2008) Management of rostral mandibular fractures in the young horse. Equine Vet Educ 20 (2), 107-112 VetMedResource.
  • Belsito K A & Fischer A T (2001) External skeletal fixation in the management of equine mandibular fractures - 16 cases (1988-1998). Equine Vet J 33 (2), 176-183 PubMed.
  • Ragle C A (1993) Head trauma. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract (1), 171-183 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • DeBowes R M (1996) Fractures of the Mandible and Maxilla. In: Equine Fracture Repair.Ed: Nixon A J. W B Saunders, USA.


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