Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Liver: hepatitis - necrotizing (Tyzzer's Disease)

Synonym(s): Dead foal disease, Tyzzer's disease

Introduction

  • A rapidly developing necrotizing hepatitis.
  • Cause: sporadic and rare infection withClostridium piliforme(previouslyBacillus piliformis) in foals.
  • Signs: pyrexia, dyspnea, hepatoencephalopathy, jaundice.
  • Diagnosis: signs, biochemistry, ultrasonography.
  • Treatment: palliative only.
  • Prognosis: nearly always fatal.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Clostridium piliforme: spore-forming, rod-shaped and flagellated bacterium; gram-negative filamentous bacteria.
  • Organism exists in soil and manure.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Predisposing factors that might increase the susceptibility include:
    • Debilitation.
    • Stress.
    • Foaling date (March-May - likely to reflect larger number of mares foaling during these months).
    • Residence status (greater in foals out of non-resident mares - suggests passive transfer of antibodies important).
    • Mare's age (greater in foals out of younger mares).

Pathophysiology

  • Unknown - presumed oral ingestion.
  • Following oral ingestion, presumed colonization of intestine and infection of liver.

Timecourse

  • Very rapid progression with no response to treatment.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Borchers A, Magdesian K G, Halland S et al (2006) Successful treatment and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) confirmation of Tyzzer's disease in a foal and clinical and pathologic characteristics of 6 additional foals (1986-2005). J Vet Intern Med 20 (5), 1212-1218 PubMed.
  • Fostgate G T, Hird D W, Read D H & Walker R L (2002) Risk factors for Clostridium piliforme infection in foals. JAVMA 220 (6), 780-790 PubMed.
  • Sweeney H J & Greig A (1986) Infectious necrotic hepatitis in a horse. Equine Vet J 18(2), 150-151 PubMed.
  • Carrigan M J, Pedrana R G & McKibbin A W (1984) Tyzzer's disease in foals. Aust Vet J 61 (6), 199-200 PubMed.
  • Brown C M, Ainsworth D M, personett L A & Derksen F J (1983) Serum biochemical and haematological findings in two foals with focal bacterial hepatitis (Tyzzer's disease). Equine Vet J 15 (4), 375-376 PubMed.
  • Turk M A, Gallina A M & Perryman L E (1981) Bacillus piliformis infection (Tyzzer's disease) in foals in northwestern United States - a retrospective study of 21 cases. JAVMA 178 (3), 279-281 PubMed.
  • Gay C C, Lording P M, McNeil P & Richards W P (1980) Infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease) in a horse. Equine Vet J 12 (1), 26-27 PubMed.
  • Hollingsworth T C & Green V J (1978) Focal necrotising hepatitis caused by Clostridium novyi in a horse. Aust Vet J 54 (1), 48 PubMed.
  • Whitwell K E (1976) Four cases of Tyzzer's disease in foals in England. Equine Vet J (3), 118-122 PubMed.


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