ISSN 2398-2977      

Liver: hepatitis - necrotizing (Tyzzer's Disease)

pequis
Contributor(s):

Synonym(s): Dead foal disease, Tyzzer's disease


Introduction

  • A rapidly developing necrotizing hepatitis.
  • Cause: sporadic and rare infection withClostridium piliforme(previouslyBacillus piliformis) in foals.
  • Signs: pyrexia, dyspnea, hepatoencephalopathy, jaundice.
  • Diagnosis: signs, biochemistry, ultrasonography.
  • Treatment: palliative only.
  • Prognosis: nearly always fatal.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Clostridium piliforme: spore-forming, rod-shaped and flagellated bacterium; gram-negative filamentous bacteria.
  • Organism exists in soil and manure.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Predisposing factors that might increase the susceptibility include:
    • Debilitation.
    • Stress.
    • Foaling date (March-May - likely to reflect larger number of mares foaling during these months).
    • Residence status (greater in foals out of non-resident mares - suggests passive transfer of antibodies important).
    • Mare's age (greater in foals out of younger mares).

Pathophysiology

  • Unknown - presumed oral ingestion.
  • Following oral ingestion, presumed colonization of intestine and infection of liver.

Timecourse

  • Very rapid progression with no response to treatment.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Borchers A, Magdesian K G, Halland S et al (2006) Successful treatment and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) confirmation of Tyzzer's disease in a foal and clinical and pathologic characteristics of 6 additional foals (1986-2005). J Vet Intern Med 20 (5), 1212-1218 PubMed.
  • Fostgate G T, Hird D W, Read D H & Walker R L (2002) Risk factors for Clostridium piliforme infection in foals. JAVMA 220 (6), 780-790 PubMed.
  • Sweeney H J & Greig A (1986) Infectious necrotic hepatitis in a horse. Equine Vet J 18(2), 150-151 PubMed.
  • Carrigan M J, Pedrana R G & McKibbin A W (1984) Tyzzer's disease in foals. Aust Vet J 61 (6), 199-200 PubMed.
  • Brown C M, Ainsworth D M, personett L A & Derksen F J (1983) Serum biochemical and haematological findings in two foals with focal bacterial hepatitis (Tyzzer's disease). Equine Vet J 15 (4), 375-376 PubMed.
  • Turk M A, Gallina A M & Perryman L E (1981) Bacillus piliformis infection (Tyzzer's disease) in foals in northwestern United States - a retrospective study of 21 cases. JAVMA 178 (3), 279-281 PubMed.
  • Gay C C, Lording P M, McNeil P & Richards W P (1980) Infectious necrotic hepatitis (black disease) in a horse. Equine Vet J 12 (1), 26-27 PubMed.
  • Hollingsworth T C & Green V J (1978) Focal necrotising hepatitis caused by Clostridium novyi in a horse. Aust Vet J 54 (1), 48 PubMed.
  • Whitwell K E (1976) Four cases of Tyzzer's disease in foals in England. Equine Vet J (3), 118-122 PubMed.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!