Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Larynx: epiglottic entrapment

Contributor(s): Christopher Brown, Paddy Dixon, Tim R C Greet, Nicola Menzies-Gow

Introduction

  • Loose mucosal folds on ventral epiglottis - fold over rostrodorsal aspects of epiglottis.
  • Apex and some of the body of the epiglottis become trapped in the mucosa.
  • Mucosal folds may become ulcerated and granulomatous.
  • Signs: vary from asymptomatic to loud upper respiratory noises and exercise intolerance and dysphagia.
  • Diagnosis: history, signs, endoscopy, radiography.
  • Treatment: depends on severity. None, NSAIDs or surgery.
  • Prognosis: surgery generally successful.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Entrapment of epiglottis in loose mucosal folds.

Predisposing factors

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Loose mucosal folds on ventral surface of epiglottis   →   fold up over rostrodorsal aspect of epiglottis   →   epiglottis becomes trapped in these mucosal folds   →   inflammation and ulceration of mucosa, epiglottis and soft palate.
  • Permanent or intermittent.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Strand E et al (2012) Relative prevalence of upper respiratory tract obstructive disorders in two breeds of harness racehorses (185 cases: 1998-2006). Equine Vet J 44 (5), 518-523 PubMed
  • Saulez M N & Gummow B (2009) Prevalence of pharyngeal, laryngeal and tracheal disorders in Thoroughbred racehorses, and effect on performance. Vet Rec 165 (15), 431-435 PubMed.
  • Franklin S H (2008) Dynamic collapse of the upper respiratory tract: A review. Equine Vet Educ 20 (4), 212-224 VetMedResource.
  • Russell T & Wainscott M (2007) Treatment in the field of 27 horses with epiglottic entrapment. Vet Rec 161 (6), 187-189 PubMed.
  • Wishaupt M A, Kastner B R, Feige K, Schmid M & Auer J A (1998) Airflow characteristics and alteration of stride-respiratory coupling in a Trakehner stallion with intermittent epiglottic entrapment. Equine Vet Educ 10 (4), 172-176 VetMedResource.
  • Dixon P M (1995) A review of the role of the epiglottis in equine upper airway obstruction. Equine Vet Educ (3), 131-139 VetMedResource.


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