Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Kidney: glomerulonephritis

Synonym(s): Glomerular inflammation, Glomerular vasculitis

Contributor(s): Carla Sommardahl, Rachael Conwell

Introduction

  • Cause: uncommon in horses. Occurs due to non-immunologic processes or immunologic processes. Immunologic processes cause glomerular injury secondary to either the deposition of soluble antigen-antibody complexes within the glomeruli or formation of autoantibodies to the glomerular basement membrane.
  • Signs: weight loss, lethargy, ventral and/or peripheral edema, polyuria and polydipsia, acute or chronic renal failure.
  • Diagnosis: urinalysis, serum chemistry profile, urine protein:creatinine ratio, renal biopsy.
  • Treatment: supportive care, detection and treatment for primary cause of inflammation or source of antigen if possible, eg streptococcal infection, equine infectious anemia.
  • Prognosis: guarded to poor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Immune-mediated cause of damage to glomerular endothelial cell basement membrane.
  • Immune complex glomerulonephritis and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis most common.
  • Idiopathic immune-mediated and non-immune-mediated glomerulonephritis have been reported.
  • Rarely glomerular amyloidosis.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Chronic infections leading to circulating immune complexes for prolonged periods.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Deposition of immune complexes or primary antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane leading to increased permeability of the glomerular filtration mechanism.
  • Increased permeability leads to proteinuria and microscopic hematuria (occasionally macroscopic).
  • Progresses to chronic renal failure and nephrotic syndrome.

Timecourse

  • Depends on inciting cause and individual animal.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent reference from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • McLeland S (2015) Diseases of the equine urinary system. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 31 (2), 377-387 Europe PMC.
  • McSloy A et al (2007) Diagnosis and treatment of a selective immunoglobulin M glomerulonephropathy in a Quarter Horse gelding. J Vet Intern Med 21 (4), 874-877 PubMed.
  • Schott H (2007) Chronic renal vailure in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 23 (3), 593-612 PubMed.
  • van Biervliet J et al (2002) Glomerulonephritis in horses. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 24, 892-902 VetMedResource.
  • Divers T J, Timoney J F, Lewis R M & Smith C A (1992) Equine glomerulonephritis and renal failure associated with complexes of Group-C streptococcal antigen and IgG antibody. Vet Immunol & Immunopathol 32 (1-2), 93-102 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Felippe M J B (2016) Glomerulonephritis. In: Equine Clinical Immunology. Ed: Felippe M J B. Wiley & Sons.
  • Schott H (2010) Chronic Renal Failure. In: Equine Internal Medicine. Eds: Reed S, Mayly W M & Sellon D. W B Saunders & Co, Philadelphia.


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