Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Immunology: selective IgM deficiency

Contributor(s): Cody Coyne, Nicola Menzies-Gow, Graham Munroe, Vetstream Ltd

Introduction

  • Cause: deficient or absent IgM; rest of immune system and other immunoglobulins unaffected; suspected genetic predisposition or may be linked to lymphosarcoma    .
  • Signs: vary with age, infections, involving the respiratory, musculoskeletal (lameness, swollen joints), alimentary (diarrhea) and lymphoreticular systems to varying degrees; general ill-thrift.
  • Diagnosis: serum IgM analysis.
  • Treatment: none very effective.
  • Prognosis: poor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Suspected genetic factors.
  • Secondary form associated with lymphosarcoma     in older animals and/or other immune system abnormalities.
  • Condition is very rare, only about 5-6 cases of selective IgM deficiency have been described in the horse.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Suspected genetic link.

Specific

  • Linked with lymphosarcoma     in older animals.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Crismans M V & Scarratt W K (2008) Immunodeficiency disorders in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Prac 24 (2), 299-310 PubMed.
  • MacLeay J M et al (1997) Acquired B lymphocyte deficiency and chronic enterocolitis in a 3-year-old quarter horse. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 57 (1-2), 49-57 PubMed.
  • Weldon A D et al (1992) Selective IgM deficiency and abnormal B-cell response in a foal. JAVMA 201 (9), 1396-1398 PubMed.
  • Riggs M W (1987) Evaluation of foals for immune deficiency disorders. Vet Clin North Am Equine Prac (3), 515-528 PubMed.
  • Freestone J F et al (1987) Acquired immunodeficiency in a seven-year-old horse. JAVMA 190 (6), 689-691 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Brown C M & Bertone J J (2003) Eds. The 5-Minute Veterinary Consult Equine. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  • Colahan P T, Mayhew I G, Merritt A M & Moore J N (1999) Eds. Equine Medicine and Surgery. 5th edn. Mosby.


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