Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Ileum: muscular hypertrophy

Contributor(s): Peter Rakestraw

Introduction

  • Infrequent cause of intestinal obstruction.
  • Ileum usually affected but jejunum and other sites have been recorded.
  • Cause: primary (idiopathic) or secondary (compensatory due to stenosis of caudal intestine).
  • Signs: varying degrees of colic: usually chronic, mild, intermittent. Worse as hypertrophy progresses. Anorexia and weight loss.
  • Diagnosis: history, signs, rectal examination.
  • Treatment: surgical bypass.
  • Prognosis: good if small intestine not chronically distended.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Primary form: idiopathic.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Secondary form: caudal intestinal stenosis.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Primary form: not understood.
  • Possibly either autonomic imbalance causing uncontrolled peristalsis   →   hypertrophy of ileal musculature; or neurogenic abnormalities   →   spastic contraction of ileocecal orifice.
  • ?Parasites   →   release of chemical mediators.
  • Secondary form: partial stenosis of caudal intestine   →   dilation cranially   →   increased peristalsis towards the obstruction   →   rapid, compensatory hypertrophy of circular and longitudinal muscular layers in response to increased workload.

Timecourse

  • Days to a few months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Chaffin M K, Carmen Fuenteabla I, Schumacher J, Welch R D and Edwards J F (1992)Idiopathic muscular hypertrophy of the equine small intestine, 11 cases (1980-1991).Equine Vet J24(5), 372-378 PubMed.


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